Abstracts of some papers by Heike Reise


I work in the Malacology Department in the Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz.

Email: Heike.Reise@senckenberg.de
Tel.: (+49) (3581) 47605410
Fax: (+49) (3581) 47605499 (please announce by phone or email)
Address for post:
Heike Reise, Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz, Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, GERMANY



 

H. Reise, 1995. Mating behaviour of Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965 and D. praecox Wiktor, 1966 (Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 61: 325–330.

The mating behaviour of Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965 and D. praecox Wiktor, 1966 was observed under laboratory conditions. Both species differ by the shape and functioning of the sarcobelum, the timing and duration of courtship and the colour of the sperm mass. Particularly the different timing of the courtship behaviour seems to act as an effective prezygotic isolation mechanism preventing interspecific crosses. Usually, sperm masses are exchanged mutually. In three homospecific pairings, unilateral sperm transfer was observed followed by a characteristic behaviour of the donor slug. This observation is discussed in light of the hermaphrodite's dilemma and sperm trading models.
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H. Reise, 1997. Deroceras juranum—a Mendelian colour morph of D. rodnae (Gastropoda: Agriolimacidae). Journal of Zoology 241: 103–115.

The terrestrial slug Deroceras juranum Wüthrich, 1993 (Gastropoda: Agriolimacidae) has been described as an endemic species of the Swiss Jura Mountains (Switzerland) where it occurs at high altitudes. The species description was mainly based on its characteristic blackish-violet body colour. Breeding experiments and comparative studies of the genital anatomy and mating behaviour indicate that D. juranum is nothing but a colour morph of the usually cream-coloured D. rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965. The body colour seems to be coded by a single locus with two alleles, of which violet is dominant over cream. Topographical colour variation has also been observed in arionid slugs. Its possible biological (i.e. selective?) meaning is discussed. The slugs are able to reproduce uniparentally with their offspring showing recombination.
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H. Reise, J.M.C. Hutchinson, R.F. Forsyth & T. Forsyth 2000. The ecology and rapid spread of the terrestrial slug Boettgerilla pallens in Europe with reference to its recent discovery in North America. The Veliger 43:313–318.

The terrestrial slug Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, is reported from two sites on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, the first records for this Palaearctic species in America. This paper describes how to recognise the species, and summarises European studies of its ecology. It is unusually worm-like in appearance, lives mostly underground, and occurs in a very wide range of habitats. This century the species has spread remarkably far and fast across Europe from the Caucasus. This is demonstrated by a table of first occurrences in each country, and by three case studies of spread within Great Britain, Belgium and north-west Austria. We predict that it will spread rapidly in North America, and may already occur more widely, but there is no evidence that it will become an important pest.
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R.G. Forsyth, J.M.C. Hutchinson & H. Reise 2001. Aegopinella nitidula (Draparnaud, 1805) (Gastropoda: Zonitidae) in British Columbia—first confirmed North American record. American Malacological Bulletin 16:65–69.

The European land snail, Aegopinella nitidula (Draparnaud, 1805), is reported for the first time from British Columbia, from three sites in the city of Vancouver. These new records are the only documentation of the species in North America, except for two old records that are probably erroneous and have been ignored in recent literature. Comparisons are made between A. nitidula and similar native and introduced species. Information about its ecology in Europe is summarised.
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H. Reise & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2001. Morphological variation in terrestrial slug Deroceras turcicum (Simroth, 1894), and a northern extension of its range in Central Europe. Folia Malacologica 9:63–71.

We report seven new localities of the terrestrial slug Deroceras turcicum (Simroth), including the first occurrences in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. These demonstrate that the distribution of D. turcicum extends much further north than known previously and it might even be rather common there. We discuss possible reasons for its belated discovery. D. turcicum might have often been confused not only with the common D. reticulatum (O.F. Müll.) but also with the syntopical D. rodnae Grossu et Lupu and D. praecox Wiktor. We describe its variability in size, coloration, genital morphology, and caecum length, and consider characters for its reliable discrimination from other species. Two colour morphs (white and violet) are described for the first time. Intriguingly, the coloration of D. turcicum often matches that of congeners found at the same site, which suggests that colour has some selective value. Since external appearance often gives no reason to suspect that two species are present at a site, dissection of several specimens is advisable.
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H. Reise, M. Benke & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2002. A sinistral specimen of the terrestrial slug Arion lusitanicus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Arionidae). Malakologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 20:247–252.

A juvenile sinistral specimen of Arion lusitanicus was found near Münster (Germany, Nordrhein-Westfalen) and raised in isolation. Its entire external and internal morphology is a mirror image of normal dextral slugs. In mating experiments with dextral individuals the partners showed clear courtship behaviour but were never successful. This was probably caused by the opposite position of their genital pores, which might make copulation impossible for mirror-image slugs. Reports of sinistral terrestrial slugs are very rare. The authors review earlier cases, and discuss the possible genetic basis of sinistrality in slugs.
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H. Reise, J.M.C. Hutchinson, R.G. Forsyth & T.J. Forsyth 2005. First records of the terrestrial slug Deroceras turcicum (Simroth, 1894) in Poland. Folia Malacologica 13:177–179.

Deroceras turcicum (Simroth) is reported from six woodland sites around Wałbrzych in southwest Poland. This extension of the species’ range to Poland was expected given the number of reports from adjacent areas of the Czech Republic. We collate these reports as well as local records of Deroceras praecox Wiktor, 1966, which is found in similar habitats. We briefly discuss the difficulty of distinguishing D. turcicum from Deroceras reticulatum (O. F. Müll.), with which it may also co-occur.
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H. Reise, J.M.C. Hutchinson & D.G. Robinson 2006. Two introduced pest slugs: Tandonia budapestensis new to the Americas, and Deroceras panormitanum new to the Eastern USA. The Veliger 48:110–115.

This paper reports new findings in North America of two pest slugs from Europe. Tandonia budapestensis, previously unknown from America, was found in Washington DC and near Philadelphia. Deroceras panormitanum, unreported from the Eastern United States and from Eastern North America outside of greenhouses, was found in Washington DC. We describe how to recognize these species and briefly summarize knowledge of their distribution and ecology.
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H. Reise, S. Visser & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2007. Mating behaviour in the terrestrial slug Deroceras gorgonium: is extreme morphology associated with extreme behaviour? Animal Biology 57:197–215.

Mating in Deroceras consists of an investigation phase (precourtship), then a long courtship involving mutual stroking with the extruded sarcobelum, then sperm exchange (copulation). The penial gland, if present, everts over the partner’s skin during copulation: this is hypothesised to apply a secretion manipulating the partner to use received sperm. Deroceras gorgonium has a particularly large penial gland, divided into many finger-like branches. We studied D. gorgonium mating behaviour in the hope of further indications of the gland’s function. Precourtship and courtship together last longer than in other Deroceras (c. 6 h to >9 h); precourtship is highly variable, often with many bouts of different behaviours, including seemingly inactive phases. During most of the courtship partners remain apart waving their particularly long, pointed sarcobela; only at a later stage do the tips of these contact the partner. This waving alternates with circling for half a turn. For the first time in Deroceras we observed the sarcobelum transferring a secretion. The copulation is amongst the fastest: genital eversion and sperm exchange occur within 1 s, and slugs separate 18–25 s later. The penial gland is everted immediately after sperm exchange, but, surprisingly, is often spread underneath the partner rather than over its back and, if on top, is not always fully spread over the partner’s body. We discuss these observations with respect to penial gland morphology and in the light of possible sexual conflicts. The long courtship and distant sarcobelum waving might reflect attempts to transfer, but not receive, secretion, and the circling might serve size assessment.
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H. Reise 2007. A review of mating behavior in slugs of the genus Deroceras (Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae). American Malacalogical Bulletin 23:137–156.

The genus Deroceras Rafinesque, 1820 (the largest genus of terrestrial slugs) shows a high diversity of penis morphologies and mating behaviors. The function of most of the appending external and internal penis structures, some of them truly bizarre, is largely unknown. This paper reviews mating behavior and reproduction, based on data on 16 species from the literature and unpublished observations. I analyze patterns common to all Deroceras species, and differences among species. The general mating pattern consists of a long courtship with mutual stroking with a sarcobelum, a sudden penis eversion and external sperm exchange (copulation). I distinguish also precourtship and withdrawal phases. Sperm exchange is usually very quick but, in a few species, occupies a considerable proportion of the total mating duration. Mutual sperm exchange is the rule. Species differences involve the durations of certain mating phases, presence and nature of initial trail following, nature and intensity of stroking (including the degree of contact with the sarcobelum), aggressiveness of courtship behavior, and the timing of the penial gland eversion. I hypothesize that the radiation of mating behaviors and associated structures may have been driven by an arms race resulting from conflicting interests of mating partners over sperm donation and use. This could also have increased the rate of speciation in Deroceras. There are indications for the presence of sperm competition and conflicting interests between mating partners: individuals mate repeatedly, can store and digest sperm, and simultaneously use sperm from different mating partners for egg fertilization. Some details of mating behavior also suggest conflict. The timing of the penial gland eversion after sperm exchange suggests a manipulation akin to the role of love darts in helicid snails. Finally, some recommendations for studying mating behavior in Deroceras are given.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson & H. Reise 2009. Mating behaviour clarifies the taxonomy of slug species defined by genital anatomy: the Deroceras rodnae complex in the Sächsische Schweiz and elsewhere. Mollusca. 27:183–200.

Collections of Deroceras from the uplands south of Dresden (along the Czech-German border) revealed two similar species differing in mating behaviour. The ranges interdigitate, but the species never occurred together. Species A has a wide sarcobelum held leftwards over its head and the everted penes are fully visible from above. It most resembles Deroceras praecox, occurring 100 km further east, whose anatomy and courtship behaviour are nevertheless consistently distinct; if these are different species, species A appears endemic to the Sächsische Schweiz. In species B, courtship and copulation take longer. Its sarcobelum is narrower, with a much enlarged base, and is directed forward or to the right. Most distinct is that the penes evert downwards and coil round each other for an additional revolution; their eversion is hidden from above except for the hand-like penial gland. This species is conspecific with Swiss, German and Austrian populations of Deroceras rodnae, but distinct from eastern populations, which more closely resemble D. praecox and species A. Unpublished molecular analyses support this division. Nevertheless, identifying non-mating animals by genital anatomy can be difficult: the base of the sarcobelum provides the best character. Western populations of D. rodnae should be termed Deroceras juranum Wüthrich, 1993.
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M. Benke, H. Reise, K. Montagne-Wajer & J.M. Koene 2010. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata). Zoology 113:118–124.

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long fingers that are everted after sperm exchange and laid onto the partner’s back. To investigate whether this gland transfers a secretion onto the partner’s skin, we killed slugs at different mating stages and studied their penial glands and skin histologically. Two types of secretion granules appeared at a very early stage of courtship, and the penial gland was already filled 15 min into the courtship. At copulation, the gland everted this secretion onto the partner’s body, where it remained for at least 50 min. No lysis of skin tissue or other effects on the skin were observed. The slugs tried to lick the received secretion off their own body, and some droplets were observed to be shed with the body mucus. Our results indicate the external application of a glandular substance that could function as either a pheromone or allohormone. The behaviours of the recipients suggest sexual conflict, although mutual interest cannot be ruled out.
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H. Reise, J.M.C.Hutchinson, S. Schunack & B. Schlitt 2011. Deroceras panormitanum and congeners from Malta and Sicily, with a redescription of the widespread pest slug as Deroceras invadens n. sp. Folia Malacologica 19:201–233.

The name Deroceras panormitanum is generally applied to a terrestrial slug that has spread worldwide and can be a pest; earlier this tramp species had been called Deroceras caruanae. Neither name is appropriate. The taxonomic descriptions apply to a species from Sicily and Malta. This true D. panormitanum and the tramp species are distinct in morphology and mating behaviour. For instance, the penial caecum of D. panormitanum is more pointed, everting faster at copulation. The size of the penial lobe varies considerably in preserved specimens but is always prominent at copulation. D. panormitanum is distinct from the Maltese endemic Deroceras golcheri, but a phylogeny based on COI mtDNA implies that they are more closely related than is the tramp species. D. golcheri has a still closer counterpart on Sicily, but we leave the taxonomy of this “species X” unresolved. In interspecific crosses, D. panormitanum may transfer sperm to the partner’s sarcobelum whereas the partner fails to evert its penis (D. golcheri) or to transfer sperm (the tramp species). Names previously applied to the tramp species originally referred to D. panormitanum or are otherwise invalid, so it is here formally redescribed as D. invadens. Deroceras giustianum Wiktor, 1998 is synonymised with D. panormitanum.
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E. Dreijers, H. Reise & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2013. Mating of the slugs Arion lusitanicus auct. non Mabille and A. rufus (L.): different genitalia and mating behaviours are incomplete barriers to interspecific sperm exchange. Journal of Molluscan Studies 79:51–63.

The large slug known as Arion lusitanicus (or A. vulgaris) is an important pest that is spreading through much of Europe. Arion rufus disappears at sites where A. lusitanicus has established strong populations. The finding of morphological intermediates suggests that A. lusitanicus hybridizes with A. rufus, but interspecific mating had not been proven. Considering the marked differences in their genitalia, it has been hard to envisage how mixed couples might transfer sperm. Arion lusitanicus and A. rufus were collected from pure populations near Görlitz, Germany, and used for laboratory mating trials involving either two individuals of A. rufus (henceforth RR), two of A. lusitanicus (LL), or one of each species (mixed). Matings were video recorded and some couples were killed during or after copulation to study spermatophore transfer and genital anatomy during mating. Three mixed pairs copulated. However, mixed pairs were significantly less likely to copulate than either RR or LL pairs (7% vs 52% and 36%). At each stage of mating, the probability of proceeding further was lower in mixed pairs than predicted from rates in RR and LL pairs, but this effect was strongest for yin-yang formation and initiating copulation. One problem was that A. lusitanicus tried to circle after yin-yang formation, whereas A. rufus remained stationary. In this respect, and in the repositioning of its everted oviduct, it was A. lusitanicus that compromised. LL copulations lasted over twice as long as RR copulations, but spermatophore formation took similar times, permitting reciprocal spermatophore exchange in mixed couples even though their copulations ended much earlier than in LL pairs. Our observations of mating behaviour of intraspecific pairs largely agree with previous descriptions of A. rufus, but we discuss some discrepancies with the fuller descriptions available for A. lusitanicus.
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H. Reise 2013. Wie seziert man Nacktschnecken? Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 88:29–32.

The determination of terrestrial slugs usually demands dissection. However, the literature recommends very different and partly contradictory methods how to access important internal structures. This article explains which structures are important for slug determination and discusses advantages and disadvantages of different methods. The method described by Wiktor is explained and illustrated. My own recommendations are added.
Die Bestimmung von Nacktschnecken erfordert in der Regel eine Sektion des Tieres. In der Literatur werden sehr verschiedene und teilweise widersprüchliche Methoden für den Zugang zu wichtigen inneren Strukturen empfohlen. Dieser Beitrag erklärt, welche Strukturen für die Nacktschnecken-Determination wichtig sind and diskutiert Vor- und Nachteile verschiedener Methoden. Die von Wiktor beschriebene Methode wird im Detail erläutert und durch eigene Empfehlungen ergänzt.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson & H. Reise 2013. A persisting population of an introduced slug, Milax nigricans, in Dunkirk, France. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 89:35–38.

A population of Milax nigricans was found on February 19th 2011 outside a block of flats in Dunkirk, France. It was persisting 21 months later. This is the second finding in the department of Nord. We review earlier occurrences of the species outside its normal range in the Mediterranean and illustrate the most important identification characters.
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A.M. Păpureanu, H. Reise, & A. Varga 2014. First records of the invasive slug Arion lusitanicus auct. non Mabille (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Arionidae) in Romania. Malacologica Bohemoslovaca 13:6–11.

The invasive pest slug Arion lusitanicus (also known as Arion vulgaris) has spread throughout much of Europe within the last 60 years, becoming one of the worst agricultural and horticultural pest species. It has now been detected in Romania for the first time. There are dense populations at two sites in Braşov County (2013) and another occurrence in Mureş County (2012). We review occurrences in neighbouring countries and discuss evidence that A. lusitanicus might have arrived in Romania earlier. Further research on the species’ spread in Romania and on its impact on the native fauna and flora is necessary.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson, H. Reise & D.G. Robinson 2014. A biography of an invasive terrestrial slug: the spread, distribution and habitat of Deroceras invadens. Neobiota 23: 17–64.

The article reviews distribution records of Deroceras invadens (previously called D. panormitanum and D. caruanae), adding significant unpublished records from the authors’ own collecting, museum samples, and interceptions on goods arriving in the U.S.A. By 1940 D. invadens had already arrived in Britain, Denmark, California, Australia and probably New Zealand; it has turned up in many further places since, including remote oceanic islands, but scarcely around the eastern Mediterranean (Egypt and Crete are the exceptions), nor in Asia. Throughout much of the Americas its presence seems to have been previously overlooked, probably often being mistaken for D. laeve. New national records include Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador, with evidence from interceptions of its presence in Panama, Peru, and Kenya. The range appears limited by cold winters and dry summers; this would explain why its intrusion into eastern Europe and southern Spain has been rather slow and incomplete. At a finer geographic scale, the occurrence of the congener D. reticulatum provides a convenient comparison to control for sampling effort; D. invadens is often about half as frequently encountered and sometimes predominates. Deroceras invadens is most commonly found in synanthropic habitats, particularly gardens and under rubbish, but also in greenhouses, and sometimes arable land and pasture. It may spread into natural habitats, as in Britain, South Africa, Australia and Tenerife. Many identifications have been checked in the light of recent taxonomic revision, revealing that the sibling species D. panormitanum s.s. has spread much less extensively. A number of published or online records, especially in Australia, have turned out to be misidentifications of D. laeve.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson & H. Reise 2015. Mating in Ariunculus isselii, an arionid slug without a spermatophore. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81: 247–258.

Ariunculus is a genus of terrestrial slugs often treated as a subgenus of Arion. A survey of the literature reveals doubts about many of the described species: only A. speziae and A. isselii are now generally recognized as belonging to Ariunculus. Ariunculus isselii is widespread on Sardinia. We describe its external appearance, mating behaviour and genital anatomy, and interpret the functioning of the genitalia based on specimens killed during copulation or shortly afterwards. Instead of the distinct epiphallus of Arion, there is only a small ampulla, because sperm are pumped out piecemeal to the recipient rather than transferred in a spermatophore. We speculate (in a framework of sexual selection theory) that this may explain why mating lasts 12 h after the initial genital eversion, much longer than in most Arion. The absence of a spermatophore provides grounds for keeping Ariunculus separate from Arion. Similarly to some Arion species, the papilla is inserted into the partner’s partially everted bursa trunk; we discuss four different hypotheses for the function of this arrangemet. Also as in some Arion species, the oviduct is everted during mating so as to apply a ligula. We provide information on egg laying in captivity and report that the species can self-fertilize.
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A. Ludwig, H. Reise & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2015. Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland). Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz 23: 43–57.

The slug fauna of gardens in the town of Görlitz was investigated by hand searching 14 house gardens, 13 allotments and four courtyards. The 13 species that were found were, in decreasing order of occurrence, Arion lusitanicus auct. non Mabille, Deroceras reticulatum, Arion distinctus, Deroceras invadens, Arion fasciatus, Limax maximus, Boettgerilla pallens, Deroceras sturanyi, Arion rufus, Arion silvaticus, Lehmannia valentiana, Arion circumscriptus und Deroceras laeve. More species of slug occurred in gardens rated as untidier (p = 0.02). The discovery of L. valentiana is the first outdoors record for Görlitz. The diverse state of establishment of the other four invasive species is discussed in relation to earlier faunistic data. Our investigation provides a baseline for long-term monitoring of the development of the slug fauna in Görlitz.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson & H. Reise 2015. An invasion from Germany; Deroceras invadens (Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) and other synanthropic slugs in the southwest corner of Poland. Folia Malacologica 23: 301–307.

Ten towns in the southwest corner of Poland within 57 km of the German border were surveyed for slugs. Deroceras invadens was found only in the four westernmost towns. In Zgorzelec, which was surveyed more intensively than the other towns, it occurs widely but only sporadically. Although D. invadens had been known in the adjacent German town of Görlitz since 1991, hitherto the only Polish record was from Wrocław, 140 km to the east. This pattern suggests a new colonisation across the border. Amongst the other species, one surprise was the rarity of Deroceras reticulatum in several towns, and another that Arion fuscus was common in one town but not found in any of the others. Records of Deroceras praecox extend its known range in Poland further west. Contrary to expectations from the literature, Deroceras sturanyi was adult in spring, and reproducing at a small size typical of Deroceras laeve.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson, H. Reise & G. Skujienė 2017. Life cycles and adult sizes of five co-occurring species of Arion slugs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 83: 88–105.

Five species of Arion slugs were collected repeatedly at a woodland site in southern England and all individuals weighed. Selected samples of these were dissected so as to weigh components of the reproductive tract. The relative weights of the gonad, spermoviduct and albumen gland provided the basis to categorize individuals into adult, subadult or immature classes, or as juvenile if the sum of these weights was below a threshold. This procedure was validated by raising A. subfuscus in captivity and killing at a range of known ages before and after egg laying. In the other species, organ weights from individuals observed to have laid eggs or mated also helped to calibrate the divisions. Such data from two species demonstrated that, following the production of an egg clutch, the albumen gland took days gradually to regrow. There was little evidence of much variation in life cycle from year to year and the broad patterns, although not precise timings, agreed with studies elsewhere. No species produced more than one generation per year and in all there was a season (brief in A. subfuscus) when adults were absent. The life cycles were predominantly annual, although in some species a minority of individuals might take 18 months to mature. The time of year at which individuals matured into adults varied between species: A. intermedius in August and September, A. distinctus mostly in December and January, A. circumscriptus mostly January to April, A. subfuscus April to early October and A. rufus July to September. The largest two species thus dominated in summer, but at other times the species overlapped considerably in size. In four species, individuals maturing later in the season did so at a smaller size; the possible exception was A. intermedius, in which maturation was highly synchronized. The coefficients of variation in adult size were compared against a collection of such data from other terrestrial molluscs. The smallest species, A. intermedius, had disproportionately large hatchlings.
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J.E. MAUNDER, R.G. NOSEWORTHY, J.M.C. HUTCHINSON & H. REISE 2017. Terrestrial molluscs of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Part 1: Boettgerillidae. Checklist 13: 277–284.

The family Boettgerillidae, represented by the Eurasian slug Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, is first recorded for Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada —a range extension of almost exactly 5000 km within the Americas. Compiled, within an appendix, to provide a national perspective for the Newfoundland and Labrador record, are 13 previously unpublished B. pallens records from British Columbia, Canada. Incidentally recorded is the second eastern Canadian outdoor occurrence of the European slug Deroceras invadens. This paper is the first in a series that will treat all of the terrestrial molluscs of Newfoundland and Labrador.
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T. von Proschwitz, H. Reise, B. Schlitt & K. Breugelmans 2017. Records of the slugs Ariolimax columbianus (Ariolimacidae) and Prophysaon foliolatum (Arionidae) imported into Sweden. Folia Malacologica 25: 267–271.

Two North American slug species are reported from three locations in southern Sweden: three records (in 2005, 2014 and 2015) of Ariolimax columbianus (Gould) and one 2005 record of Prophysaon foliolatum (Gould). The record of P. foliolatum is the first for Europe. In all cases it is highly probable or proven that the slugs had been accidentally imported with ornamental plants from North America, particularly salal, Gaultheria shallon Pursh. Salal is collected on a massive scale from the rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, particularly in Canada and Washington State, and exported as green filler for floral arrangements. The harvest, storage and transport conditions seem perfectly suitable for these slugs, which are not synanthropic but live in natural habitats where salal thrives. We point out that these apparently uncontrolled imports might open the door to the introduction of new, non-synanthropic species.
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H. Reise, B. Schlitt & J.M.C. Hutchinson 2018. Bericht über die 33. Regionaltagung des Arbeitskreises Ost der DMG in Ostritz bei Görlitz vom 23. bis 25. September 2016: Mollusken des Rotsteins bei Sohland, Sachsen. Mitteilungen der deutschen malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 98:35–44.

Das 33. Regionaltreffen der DMG-Arbeitsgruppe Ost fand vom 23.-25.9.2016 im Internationalen Begegnungszentrum St. Marienthal in Ostritz, Ostsachsen statt. Es kamen 35 Teilnehmer und Begleitpersonen. Die Sammelexkursion mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Landgastropoden führte am 24. September an drei Sammelstellen im Ostlausitzer Hügelland: das Naturschutzgebiet des Basaltbergmassivs Rotstein bei Sohland am Rotstein, ein Teich und Erlenwald bei Sohland und der Basaltberg Eichler bei Rennersdorf. Weitere Aufsammlungen wurden im Umfeld der Klosters St. Marienthal vorgenommen. Insgesamt wurden 81 Molluskenarten gesammelt, davon 53 Arten am Rotstein, dem Schwerpunktgebiet der Tagungsexkursion. Zehn Arten wurden zum ersten Mal auf dem Rotstein nachgewiesen. Insgesamt sind nun 61 Arten für den Rotstein nachgewiesen, was den besonderen Stellenwert des Gebietes für die Molluskenfauna der Oberlausitz unterstreicht. Zu den faunistisch besonders interessanten Arten gehören u. a. Vertigo alpestris, Euomphalia strigella, Truncatellina cylindrica und Vitrea subrimata. Letztere ist gleichzeitig der Erstnachweis für die Oberlausitz, ebenso wie das Leergehäuse einer Nesovitrea petronella aus dem Erlenwald am Teich bei Sohland. Weitere besonders bemerkenswerte Funde sind Vitrinobrachium breve vom Eichler und Limacus flavus aus Ostritz, beide in der sächsischen Oberlausitz erstmalig außerhalb der Stadt Görlitz. Leider wurde der invasive Arion lusitanicus auch im Kerngebiet des Rotstein-Waldes angetroffen, was belegt, dass die Art nun in natürliche Lebensräume eindringt, wo sie gegenwärtig neben einheimischen A. rufus agg. vorkommt.
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H. Reise, Z. Arslangündoğdu, B. Schlitt, J.M.C. Hutchinson, E. Hızal & E. Bacack 2018. First records of the terrestrial slug Arion ater s.l. (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pulmonata: Arionidae) from Turkey. Folia Malacologica 26: 213–220. 301–307.

A strong population of the terrestrial slug Arion ater s.l. is reported from the European and Asian parts of Istanbul, Turkey. This is the first confirmed report of this large, conspicuous taxon from Turkey and from Asia. Our samples from five synanthropic sites indicate that it is already well established. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) place the Turkish slugs in a small clade shared with a few specimens from western France, perhaps indicating the origin of the Istanbul population. The next closest haplotypes (9% difference) fall within the clade identified as Arion ater s.s. This fits with the genital morphology of the Turkish slugs, which is most similar to the ater-form of A. ater s.l. Our discovery also puts a new light on the recent report of the highly invasive pest slug Arion lusitanicus auct. non Mabille, 1868 (often called Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855) in Isparta, which was identified only on the basis of external morphology. As reliable morphological distinction of these two species requires examination of the genital anatomy, the specimen from Isparta should be reinvestigated.
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J.M.C. Hutchinson, B. Schlitt & H. Reise 2019. Monacha claustralis (Rossmässler 1834), a hygromiid snail new to Germany. Mitteilungen der deutschen malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 100: 17–22.

Colonies originally identified as Monacha cartusiana have often turned out to be M. claustralis. This was the case with a sample collected in 2016 from near Jena, and thus the first record of M. claustralis from Germany. We compare these animals' genital anatomy against several distinguishing characters advocated in the literature. A partial-COI sequence indicates a close genetic relationship with Polish colonies near Gdansk and Kielce. Although originally from western Turkey and adjacent parts of the Balkan Peninsula, M. claustralis is liable to have established itself at other sites in Germany, maybe sometimes hidden in mixed colonies with M. cartusiana, from which it is indistinguishable using external characters.
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