Daniel Pruchniewicz & L. Zolnierz


Daniel Pruchniewicz Katedra Botaniki i Ekologii Roślin, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu,
pl. Grunwaldzki 24a, 50-363 Wrocław, Polska

Ludwik Żołnierz Katedra Botaniki i Ekologii Roślin, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu,
pl. Grunwaldzki 24a, 50-363 Wrocław, Polska



Wpływ użytkowania na kompozycję i różnorodność gatunkową górskich łąk świeżych   (streszczenie referatu)


The influence of management ways on the species composition and diversity of mountain
mesic meadows
The shape of mountain mesic meadows (order Arrhenatheretalia) was formed as a result of centuries-long, traditional extensive use, therefore nowadays those grasslands can be regarded as a kind of both natural and cultural relic. In the last decades in many parts of Europe we can observe a reduction of species diversity of meadows and pastures caused by radical changes in their use. The changed economic conditions led, on the one hand, to the intensification of grassland management introducing modern methods of cultivation, maintenance and grazing, and, on the other hand, to their abandonment, especially in mountainous regions.
The aim of this study was to learn about the variability of species composition of the mountain grasslands representing the Arrhenatheretalia order and how the various management ways influence the species diversity.
The study was conducted in the central part of Sudety Mts. embracing the Sowie Mts. and ranges of hills on their south-western foreland.
During the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011, 172 relevés of 25 m2 surface were sampled. The obtained data was analyzed by numerical methods comprising divisive classification (TWINSPAN) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) carried out with use of topographic parameters and Ellenberg’s indicator values to characterize the site conditions.
In the area of the Central Sudetes we found impoverished forms of mesic meadows. Among them, there are poorly distinguishable phytocoenoses of Arrhenatherion elatioris, Polygono-Trisetion and Cynosurion. In the study area there is a clear phenomenon of degradation of grassland vegetation consisting in the domination of those communities by expansive species such as Calamagrostis epigejos, Festuca Rubra, Holcus lanatus, Deschampsia caespitosa and locally Lupinus polyphyllus. The degradation of plant communities of meadows and pastures is the result of abandonment or irregular use.
The calculated species diversity indices show that the poorest patches of mesic Meadows occur on sites grazed by cattle, mown one time in the growing season and those being fallowed. The most diverse communities were found in the meadows mown twice during the growing season.