Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt

Messel Research and Mammalogy

PD Dr. Ottmar Kullmer

Head of Tertiary Mammals Section


      ottmar kullmer        


Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
Section Tertiary Mammals
Senckenberganlage 25
60325 Frankfurt am Main

Phone: +49 / 69 / 7542-1364
      Fax: +49 / 69 / 7542-1558

Paläobiologie und Umwelt


Research focus 


  • Evolution and function of mammalian teeth and bone
  • Virtual 3D-methods in mammalian palaeontology
  • Human evolution
  • Plio-pleistocene evolution of African mammals
  • Prospection and excavation of Tertiary fossil mammalian localities


 Field work
  • Maramena (Greece)
    Palaeontological excavation in Upper Miocene deposits.
  • Chiwondo Beds (Malawi)
    ”Hominid Corridor Research Project” investigation in the Plio-Pleistocene of Northern Malawi
  • Laetoli, Ndolanya Beds and Kakesio, Kakesio Beds (Tanzania)
    ”Hominid Corridor Research Project” investigation in Plio-Pleistocene deposits.
  • Galili, Afar Triangle, Somali Region (Ethiopia)
    Exploration and investigation in Plio-Pleistocene sediments.
  • Danakil Depression, Afar Region (Ethiopia)
    Exploration and investigation in Plio-Pleistocene sediments
  • Lake Albert, Nkondo Formation (Uganda)
    Exploration and investigation in Mio-Pliocene deposits in Lake Albert basin.


Scientific Projects (Third Party Funded)  


Since 2007 DFG-FOR 771 Function and performance enhancement in the mammalian dentition
-phylogenetic and _mce_ontogenetic impact on the masticatory apparatus
(second funding phase, started 5/2011). DFG – Research Unit in cooperation with University Bonn and University Hamburg investigating structures- and function of mammalian teeth. DFG FOR 771

Own projects in DFG-FOR 771:

  • Occlusal Fingerprint Analyser - OFA“ conception and programing of software for detection of tooth contact areas and the analysis of occlusal movements DFG FOR 771 -OFA
  • project A2: evolution and functional variability of bunodont primate molars. Dissertation U. Menz  
    DFG FOR 771 - Project A2
  • project D3: Function of basal tribosphenid dentitions. Dissertation A. Schwermann, cooperation with Prof. Dr. T. Martin, University Bonn DFG FOR 771 - Project D3

2006 – 2009 EU-MRTN-CT-2005-019564 EVAN - European Virtual Anthropology Network, Human Resources and Mobility (HRM) Activity, Marie Curie Actions Research Training Network (RTN).
EU-project to promote young researchers in the fields of virtual structural analyses and 3D-morphometrics of skeletal hard tissue including teeth in anthropology. Research cooperation  15 partner institutions  from teaching and sceince, as well as industry to develop new innovative virtual methods for research and medical application. EVAN  EVAN-Society

2006 – 2012 DFG-FOR 703 Rift Dynamics, Uplift and Climate Change in Equatorial Africa: Interdisciplinary Research Linking Asthenosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere and Atmosphere (RIFTLINK).
Interdisziplinary DFG Research Unit project to enhance our knowledge in rift development and its imüplication on regional climate and the biosphere. Cooperation between the JWG University Frankfurt a. M., JG University Mainz, TU Darmstadt and University Heidelberg Riftlink

  • Project C1: Paleoclimate reconstruction for the East African Rift from geochemical studies of mammalian teeth. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. D. Mertz, JG University Mainz und Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk, Goethe
    Universität Frankfurt
  • Project C2: Impact of climatic and environmental variability on faunal composition and distribution of molluscan and mammalian faunas in Eastern Africa. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk, JWG University Frankfurt a. M. and Dr. C. Albrecht, JL University Gießen

2002 – 2005 DFG project. Molar construction and function of occlusal facets in cercopithecoidea.
Occlusal facts of dental surfaces in primate molars were quantitatively investigated applying virtual tooth models of variable primate molars. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk, JWG University Frankfurt a. M.

2003 – 2005 DFG project. Biostratigraphy, Palaeoecology and relative dating of suid und elephantids from Galili, Somali Region, Ethiopia.
Fossil tooth remains of large mammals have been morphological-morphometrical investigated to reconstruct the palaeoecology and habitat. Cooperation with Dr. O. Sandrock, Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt.

1999 – 2000 DFG Research fellowship. Digital image analysis and quantification of crack and breakage patterns to characterize taphonomic processes in cortical bone structures.
In the project crack and breakage in cortical bone of fossil and modern lower jaws were digitally analysed and quantified to interpret environmental implications in fossilization processes. 

1994 – 1996 DFG project. The evolution of suids in the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa and their biostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoecologic importance.
Own dissertation project to morphometrc investigation oft he architecture and function of enamel and dentin structures in fossil pig teeth. Cooperationsprojekt with Prof. Dr. N. Schmidt-Kittler, JWG Universität Mainz.


Other scientific cooperations (international und national)


Human Paleobiomics Hard Tissue Research Program, international research program for the investigation structural patterns in bone and tooth materials. Cooperation based on the Max-Planck Research Award 2010 of Prof. Dr. T. Bromage, University of New York (NYU), College of Dentistry, further partner is Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk, JWG University Frankfurt a. M. The project in particular funds research in the field of the analysis and investigation metabolism and environmental signals such as growth effects due to climate changes, and nutrition and diseases in hard tissue microstructural development.  Paleobiomics

Early Homo phylogenetic and functional relationships, reconstructed from mandibular/dental structures and growth patterns, dissertation of M. Bäuchle. The project investigates the morphological variability in lower jaws and teeth in chimpanzee populations. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. Jean-Jacques Hublin, Dr. Phillip Gunz, Max-Planck Institute of EvolutionaryAnthropology Leipzig and Prof. F. Schrenk, JWG University Frankfurt a. M.

Combining Finite Element Method (FEM) and Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA), Distribution of loads in dental tissues and mandibular bone, dental arch reconstruction in fossil hominids derived from Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis. The project investgates the distribution of loads in teeth Zähnen, derived from individual chewing behaviour. Cooperation with Dr. Stefano Benazzi, Max-Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig.

Isotope analyses in dental enamel of oft he fossil great ape Gigantopithecus blacki fort he reconstruction of palaeodiet. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. H. Bocherans, Institute for Geosciences, Eberhard-Karls University Tübingen, HEP Center of Human Evolution and Paleoecology Tübingen.

Dental arch reconstruction of the fossil ape Rudapithecus hungaricus derived from Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA). For the first time the complete dental arches of a fossil great ape are reconstructed derived from the tooth macrowear pattern. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. David Begun, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Canada,  Dr. Stefano Benazzi and Dr. Phillip Gunz Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig and ZT Dieter Schulz, Private laboratory dental workshop for training research, and technique Heppenheim, Bensheimer Arbeitskreis e.V. BAK.

Tandem Scanning Microscopical Analysis of enamel wear structures in Homo erectus teeth. Dissertation of
J. Tausch, Cooperation with Prof. Dr. T. Bromage, University of New York (NYU), School of Dentistry and Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk JWG University Frankfurt a. M.  

Dental Microstructure and enamel thickness in Asian early Homo and Pongo Cooperation with Prof. Dr. T. Smith, Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, USA, and Dr. P. Tafforeau, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) Grenoble, France.  

Basic principles in the correlation between jaw joint moevments and natural dental surfaces. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. Olaf Winzen, SRH-University Hamm, Dental Kinematics and ZT Dieter Schulz, Private laboratory dental workshop for training research, and technique Heppenheim, Bensheimer Arbeitskreis e.V. BAK.

Natural Functional Reconstruction of dentaL prosthetics and development of the three-dimensional occlusal compass. Cooperation with ZT Dieter Schulz, Private laboratory dental workshop for training research, and technique Heppenheim, Bensheimer Arbeitskreis e.V. BAK.

Sedimentology, Taphonomy and Palaeoecology in the Miocene dinothere sands of Eppelsheim/Rhinehesse, Cooperation with Dr. Herbert Lutz, Naturual History Museum Mainz. 

Hominid Corridor Research Project (HCRP), ´The Palaeontology and Palaeoecology of the Plio-Pleistocene Chiwondo Beds, Malawi in Africa. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. F. Schrenk JWG University Frankfurt a. M., Dr. O. Sandrock, Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt and Prof. Dr. T. Bromage, University of New York (NYU), School of Dentistry. 

Paleoanthropological Research Team (PAR-Team),  Palaeontology, Palaeoanthropology and Palaeoecology of the Hominid Sites in Galili, Somali Region in Ethiopia. Cooperation with Prof. Dr. Horst Seidler Department for Anthropology, University Vienna, Austria.


Collection supervision in the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt a. M.


  • Collections of fossil bone and tooth remains from Senckenberg excavations in the dinothere sands in
    Eppelsheim 1996-2000, and from fossil deposits in Dorn-Dürkheim.
  • Collection G.H.R. von Koenigswald teeth and bone remains of fossil mammals, including hominid fossils
    from Java, Indonesia
  • Cast collections of fossil hominid skull, jaws and tooth remains. 
  • Digital data collection of fossil hominid teeth, jaws and skulls.
  • CT data collection of chimpanzee skulls (Pan troglodytes verus) from Liberia.  
  • Collections of modern mammals and fossil small mammals in the Senckenberg Section of Mammalogy (acting).


University teaching


Since 2001

Supervision of bachelor, master, diploma, and dissertations at the JWG UniverisityFrankfurt a. M., Faculty of Biosciences in the fields of functional morphology of mammalian dentition and jaws, including humans, palaeoecology,taphonomy, morphometrics and 2D/3D image analysis, virtual palaeontology and anthropology.

Since 2000

Lectures, seminars and practical courses at the JWG University Frankfurt a. M., Faculty of Biosciences, Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, in functional morphology, construction and Evolution of mammals and dentitions. 

2003 – 2004

Lectures, seminars and practical courses, human evolution and functional morphology, evolution of mammalian dentition in the frame of a guest professorship at the Department for Anthropology, University Vienna, Austria. 


Publications – selected scientific contributions (peer-reviewed) 


Luedecke T., Schrenk F., Thiemeyer H., Kullmer O., Bromage T.G., Sandrock O., Fiebig J., Mulch A. 2016. Persistent C3 vegetation accompanied Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution in the Malawi Rift (Chiwondo Beds, Malawi). Journal of Human Evolution, 90:163-175.


 Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Henry AG, Salazar-García DC, Blasco R, Picin A, Wroe S, Kullmer O 2014. To Meat or Not to Meat? New Perspectives on Neanderthal Ecology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Yearbook of Physical Anthropology), 156 (Suppl.59):43–71.

 Fiorenza L, Kullmer O 2015. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig andTillier. Homo – Journal of Comparative Biology, published online ahead of print, DOI:10.1016/j.jchb.2015.04.002.

 Zanolli C, Grine FE, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Macchiarelli R 2015. Brief Communication: The Early Pleistocene Deciduous Hominid Molar FS-72 From the Sangiran Dome of Java, Indonesia: A Taxonomic Reappraisal Based on its Comparative Endostructural Characterization. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 157(4):666–674.

 Oxilia G, Peresani M, Romandini M, Matteucci C, Spiteri CD, Henry AG, Schulz D, Archer W, Crezzini J, Boschin F, Boscato P, Jaouen K, Dogandzic T, Broglio A, Moggi-Cecchi J, Fiorenza L, Hublin J-J, Kullmer O, Benazzi S 2015. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic. Scientific Reports, 5, 12150. DOI:10.1038/srep12150

 Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J-J 2015. Exploring the biomechanics of taurodontism. Journal of Anatomy, 226 (2):180-188.

 Tausch J, Kullmer O, Bromage TG 2015. A New Method for Determining the 3D Spatial Orientation of Molar Microwear, Scanning, 9999:1-12. published online ahead of print DOI: 10.1002/sca.21234. 

 Kullmer, O, 2015: Der verlorene Biss: Biologische und kulturelle Evolution der Zähne. In (H. Böhme, B. Kordaß, B. Slominski Hrsg.) Das Dentale - Faszination des oralen Systems in Wissenschaft und Kultur. S.65-86, Quintessenz, Berlin.


Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Henry AG, Salazar-Garc DC, Blasco R, Picin A, Wroe S, Kullmer O 2014: To Meat or Not to Meat? New Perspectives on Neanderthal Ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22659 Published online ahead of print in Wiley Online Library

Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J-J 2014: Exploring the biomechanics of taurodontism. Journal of Anatomy , DOI: 10.1111/joa.12260 Published online ahead of print.

Emonet E-G, Kullmer O 2014: Variability in Premolar and Molar Root Number in a Modern Population of Pan troglodytes verus. The Anatomical Record 297(10): 1927-1934. DOI: 10.1002/ar.22959.

Weber GW, Benazzi S, Kullmer O 2014: Mikro-CT-Anwendungen in der biologischen Anthropologie. Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel 21(2):68-68f.

Benazzi S, Grosse,IR, Gruppioni,G, Weber GW, Kullmer O 2014 Comparison of occlusal loading conditions in a lower second premolar using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Clinical Oral Investigations, 18: 369-375.


Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J 2013: Unravelling the Functional Biomechanics of Dental Features and Tooth Wear. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69990. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069990

Fiorenza, L. and Kullmer, O. (2013), Dental wear and cultural behavior in Middle Paleolithic humans from the Near East. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 152: 107–117. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22335

Benazzi, S., Nguyen, N. H., Schulz, D., Grosse, I. R. Gruppioni, G., Hublin, J.-J., and Kullmer, O. 2013: The Evolutionary Paradox of Tooth Wear: Simply Destruction or Inevitable Adaptation? PLoS ONE 8(4): 62263.doi:10.1371/journal.pone. 0062263.

Benazzi S., Grosse I.R., Gruppioni G., Weber G.W., Kullmer O. 2013: Comparison of occlusal loading conditions in a lower second premolar using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Clinical Oral Investigations DOI 10.1007/s00784-013-0973-8. 

Harvati, K., Darlas, A., Bailey, S.E., Rein, T.R., El Zaatari, S., Fiorenza, F., Kullmer, O., Psathi, E. 2013: New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: The Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site, Journal of Human Evolution.

Weber, G.W., Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O. 2013: CT-Anwendungen in der biologischen Anthropologie. Osteologie/Osteology, 22 (1):18-24.

Kullmer, O., Benazzi, S., Schulz, D., Gunz, P.,  Kordos, L., Begun, D.R. 2013: Dental arch restoration using tooth macrowear patterns with application to Rudapithecus hungaricus, from the late Miocene of Rudabánya, Hungary. Journal of Human Evolution, 64:151-160. 

Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O., Schulz, D., Weber G.W. 2013: Individual tooth macrowear pattern guides the reconstruction of Sts 52 (A. africanus) dental arches. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150: 324-329. 

von Koenigswald, W. Anders, U., Engels S., Schultz, J. A., Kullmer, O. 2013: Jaw movement in fossil mammals: analysis, description and visualization. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 87:141–159, doi:10.1007/s12542-012-0142-4. 


Kullmer, O., Schulz, D., Benazzi, S. 2012: An Experimental Approach to Evaluate the Correspondence Between Wear Facet Position and Occlusal Movements. The Anatomical Record, 295: 846–852.

von Koenigswald, W. Anders, U., Engels S., Schultz, J. A., Kullmer, O. 2012: Jaw movement in fossil mammals: analysis, description and visualization. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, doi:10.1007/s12542-012-0142-4

Brügmann, G., Krause; J., Brachert, T. C., Stoll, B., Weis, U., Kullmer, O., Ssemmanda, I., Mertz, D. F. 2012: Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance. Biogeosciences Discuss., 9, 3645-3691, doi:10.5194/bgd-9-3645-2012.

Böhme, M., Aiglstorfer, M., Uhl, D., Kullmer, O. 2012: The Antiquity of the Rhine River: Stratigraphic Coverage of the Dinotheriensande (Eppelsheim Formation) of the Mainz Basin (Germany). PLoS ONE 7(5): e36817. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036817

Brügmann, G., Krause, J., Brachert, T.C., Kullmer, O. , Schrenk, F., Ssemmanda, I., Mertz, D.F. 2012: Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation, Biogeosciences, 9, 119–139.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Zermeno, J.P., Tafforeau, P., Skinner, M.M., Hoffmann, A., Radovčić, J., Toussaint, M., Kruszynski, R., Menter, C., Moggi-Cecchi, J., Glasmacher, U.A., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Stringer, C., Hublin, J-J. 2012: Variation in enamel thickness within the genus Homo. Journal of Human Evolution 62:395-411.

Benazzi, S. Kullmer, O., Grosse, I.R., Weber, G.W. 2012: Brief Communication: Comparing Loading Scenarios in Lower First Molar Supporting Bone Structure Using 3D Finite Element Analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(1):128-134.


Denys C., Sandrock O., Kullmer O., Ramirez Rozzi F., Bromage T. G., Schrenk F. 2011: Note on the presence of Hystrix (Mammalia, Rodentia) in the Malawi Chiwondo Beds (Plio-Pleistocene): taphonomical and palaeoecological implications. Geodiversitas 33 (4): 729-738.

Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O., Kupczik, K., Frost, S.R., Volpato, V. Bromage, T.G., Schrenk, F. 2011: New Primate Remains from Mwenirondo, Chiwondo Beds in northern Malawi, Journal of Human Evolution, 61:617-623.

Benazzi, S., Douka, K., Fornai, C., Bauer, C.C., Kullmer, O., Svoboda, J., Pap, I., Mallegni, F., Bayle, P., Coquerelle, M., Condemi, S., Ronchitelli, A., Harvati, K., Weber, G.W. 2011: Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behavior. NATURE, 479, 525-528.

Smith, T.M., Bacon, A.-M., Demeter, F., Kullmer, O., Nguyen, K.T., de Vos, J., Wei, W., Zermeno, J.P., Zhao, L. 2011: Dental tissue proportions in fossil orangutans from mainland Asia and Indonesia. Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1

Benazzi, S., Viola, B., Kullmer, O., Fiorenza, L., Harvati, K., Paul, T., Gruppioni, G., Weber, G.W., Mallegni, F. 2011: A reassessment of the Neanderthal teeth from Taddeo cave (southern Italy). Journal of Human Evolution, 61(4):377-387.

Benazzi, S., Fornai, C., Bayle, P., Coquerelle, M., Kullmer, O., Mallegni, F., Weber, G. 2011: Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal andmodern human lower second deciduous molars. Journal of Human Evolution, 61(3):320-326.

Fiorenza, L., Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O. 2011: Para-masticatory wear facets and their functional significance in hunter–gatherer maxillary molars. Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 38 (9): 2182-2189.

Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O., Grosse, I.R., Weber, G.W. 2011: Using occlusal wear information and finite element analysis to investigate stress distributions in human molars. Journal of Anatomy, 219:259–272.

Benazzi, S., Fiorenza, L., Kozakowski, S., Kullmer, O. 2011: Comparing 3D Virtual Methods for Hemimandibular Body Reconstrution. The Anatomical Record, 294: 1116–1125.

Bocherens, H., Sandrock, O., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F. 2011: Hominin palaeoecology in Late Pliocene Malawi: First insights from isotopes (13C, 18O) in mammal teeth. South African Journal of Science, 107 (3/4), Art. #331, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v107i3/4.331

Fiorenza, L., Benazzi, S., Tausch, J., Kullmer, O., Bromage, T.G., Schrenk F. 2011: Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation. PLoS ONE 6(3): e14769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014769

Benazzi, S., Fiorenza, L., Katina, S., Bruner, E., Kullmer, O. 2011: Quantitative assessment of interproximal wear facet outlines for the association of isolated molars, American Journal of Physical Anthropology,144(2):309–316.

Fiorenza, L., Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F. 2011: Relationship Between Cusp Size and Occlusal Wear Pattern in Neanderthal and Homo sapiens First Maxillary Molars, The Anatomical Record, 294:453-461.

Benazzi, S., Coquerelle, M., Fiorenza, L., Bookstein, F., Katina, S., Kullmer, O. 2011: Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of first molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144(3):342–354.


Fiorenza, L., Benazzi, S., Tausch, J., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F. 2010: Brief communication: Identification reassessment of the isolated tooth Krapina D58 through occlusal fingerprint analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143(2): 306-312.

Brachert, T., Brügmann, G., Mertz, D.F., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Jacob, D.E., Ssemmanda, I., Taubald, H. 2010: Stable isotope variation in tooth enamel from Neogene hippopotamids: monitor of meso and global climate and rift dynamics on the Albertine Rift, Uganda. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch) (2010) 99:1663–1675

Benazzi, S., Buti, L., Franzo L., Kullmer, O., Winzen, O., Gruppioni, G. 2010: Report of Three Fused Primary Human Teeth in an Archaeological Material. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 20: 481–485.


Benazzi, S., Stansfield, E., Kullmer, O., Fiorenza, L., Gruppioni, G. 2009: Geometric Morphometric Methods for Bone reconstruction: The Mandibular Process of Pico della Mirandola. The Anatomical Record, 292:1088–1097.

Kullmer, O., Benazzi, S., Fiorenza, L., Schulz, D., Bacso, S., Winzen O. 2009: Technical Note: Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA): Quantification of tooth wear pattern. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139:600–605.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Kupczik, K., Lazzari, V., de Vos, J., Kullmer, O., Schrenk. F., Hublin, J.-J., Jacob, T., Tafforeau, P. 2009: Taxonomic Reassessment of the Trinil Molars. PaleoAnthropology, 2009:117-129.

Fiorenza, L., Benazzi, S., Kullmer, O. 2009: Morphology, wear and 3D digital surface models: materials and techniques to create high-resolution replicas of teeth. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 87:211-218.

Sommer, J., Kullmer, O., Holzförster, F., Lutz, H. 2009: Die obermiozänen Dinotheriensande (Eppelsheim-Formation) bei Eppelsheim/Rheinhessen unter dem Gesichtspunkt neuer sedimentologischer, taphonomischer und paläoökologischer Ergebnisse. Jubiläumsband der Rheinischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft e.V. Mainz, 175 Jahre RNG.


Kullmer, O. 2008: Benefits and Risks in Virtual Anthropology, Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 86:205-207.

Holzförster, F., Sommer, J., Kullmer, O., Lutz, H. 2008: Der Obermiozäne Ur-Rhein bei Eppelsheim (Rheinhessen) und sein Bezug zur Tektonik des Mainzer Beckens, Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv, 46:37-52.

Kullmer, O. 2008: The Plio-Pleistocene Suids (Suidae; Artiodactyla) of the Chiwondo Beds, northern Malawi. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1): 208-216.

Kullmer, O., Morlo, M., Sommer, J., Lutz, H., Engel, T., Forman, M., Holzförster, F. 2008: The second specimen of Simocyon diaphorus (Kaup, 1832) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ailuridae) from the type locality Eppelsheim (Early Late Miocene, Germany), Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3):928-932.

Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O., Viola, T. B., Hujer, W., Said, H., Seidler, H. 2008: Suids, Elephantoids and Paleoecology of the Pliocene Galili hominid site, Somali Region, Ethiopia. Palaios, 23:452-464.

Frost, S., Kullmer, O. 2008: Cercopithecidae from the Pliocene Chiwondo Beds, Malawi-rift. Geobios, 41:743–749.

Bromage T.G., McMahon J.M., Thackeray J.F., Kullmer O., Hogg R., Rosenberger A.L., Schrenk F., Enlow D.H. 2008: Craniofacial architectural constraints and their importance for reconstructing the early Homo skull KNM-ER 1470, Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 33(1):43-54.

Olejniczak, A.J., Smith, T.M., Wang, W., Potts, R., Ciochon, R., Kullm­­er, O., Schrenk F., Hublin, J-J. 2008: Molar enamel thickness and dentine horn height in Gigantopithecus blacki. American Journal of Physical Anthopology, 135:85-91.

Hublin, J.-J., Pääbo, S., Derevianko, A.P., Doronichev, V.B., Golovanova, L.V., Friess, M., Froment, A., Hoffmann, A., Kachache, N.E.J., Kullmer, O., Lordkipanidze, D., Moncel, M.-H., Potts, R., Radovcic, J., Rak, Y.Z., Richards, M., Méndez, J.R., Rosas, A., Schmauder, M., Schmitz, R.W., Semal, P., Smith, T., Tafuri, M.A., Tattersall, I., Tournepiche, J.-F., Toussaint, M., Vassiliev, S., Vialet, A., White, T., Ziegler, R. 2008: Suggested guidelines for invasive sampling of hominid remain, Journal of Human Evolution, 55:756-757.


Sandrock, O., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Juwayeyi, Y.M., Bromage, T. 2007: Fauna, taphonomy and ecology of the Plio-Pleistocene Chiwondo Beds, Northern Malawi. - In: Bobe, R., Alemseged, Z., Behrensmeyer, A. K. [Hrsg.]: Hominin environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence, pp. 315-332, Springer Publishing Dordrecht Netherlands, ISBN 978-1-4020-3097-0 (HB), ISBN 978-1-4020-3098-7 (e-book).

Ulhaas, L, Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F. 2007: Tooth wear diversity in early hominid molars – a case study. In: Bailey, S., Hublin, J.J., Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution: State of the Art Research in Dental Anthropology, pp. 369-390. Springer Publishing Dordrecht Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-5844-8 (HB), ISBN 978-1-4020-5845-5 (e-book).

Kullmer, O. 2007: Geological Background of Hominid Sites in Africa. – In: Henke, W., Tattersal, I. [Hrsg.]: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Volume 1: Principles, Methods and Approaches, 1:339-356, Springer Publishing Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.

Schrenk, F., Kullmer, O., Bromage, T. 2007: The earliest putative Homo fossils. – In: Henke, W., Tattersal, I. [Hrsg.]: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Volume 3: Phylogeny of Hominids, 3:1611-1631, Springer Publishing Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.


Urbanek, C., Faupl, P., Hujer, W., Ntaflos, T., Richter, W., Weber, G., Schaefer, K., Viola, B., Gunz, P., Neubauer, S., Stadlmayr, A., Kullmer O., Sandrock, O., Nagel, D., Conroy, G., Falk, D., Woldearegay, K., Said, H., Assefa, G., Seidler, H. 2005: Geology, Paleontology and Paleoantropology of the Mount Galili Formation in the southern Afar Depression, Ethiopia – Preliminary results. Joannea Geologie und Paläontologie 6: 29-43.


Macchiarelli, R., Bondioli, L., Falk, D., Faupl, P., Illerhaus, B., Kullmer, O., Richter, W., Said, H., Sandrock, O., Schäfer, K., Urbanek, C., Viola, T.B., Weber, G.W., Seidler, H. 2004: Early Pliocene hominid tooth from Galili, Somali Region, Ethiopia. Collegium Anthropologicum., 28 (2): 65-76.

Schrenk, F., Sandrock, O., Kullmer, O. 2004: The "Open Source" Perspective of earliest Hominid Origins, Collegium Anthropologicum, 28 (2):113-119.

Ulhaas, L., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Henke, W. 2004: A new 3-d approach to determine functional morphology of cercopithecoid molars. Annals of Anatomy. 5-6: 487-494.


Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Dörrhöfer, B. 2003: 3D-Image analyses and comparison of ape, hominid and human footprints: Current Research. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 243: 65-71, 4 Figs., 1 Tab..

Schrenk, F. ,Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O., Bromage, T. G. 2003: Early hominid diversity, age and biogeography of the Malawi-Rift, Human Evolution 17(1-2), 113-122.


Kullmer, O., Huck, M., Engel, K., Schrenk, F., Bromage, T. G. 2002: Hominid Tooth Pattern Database (HOTPAD) based on optical 3D topometry. In: Three –Dimensional Imaging in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology, Acts of the XIVth UISPP Congress, University of Liège, Belgium, 2-8 September 2001, Colloque, Symposium 1.7 eds. Bertrand Mafart & Hervé Delingette, BAR International Series 1049, 71-82.

Bromage, T. G., Dirks, W., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Huck, M., Kullmer, O., Öner, R., Sandrock, O., Schrenk, F. 2002: A life history and climate change solution to the evolution and extinction of insular dwarfs: A Cypriot experience. - In: Waldren, W.H. & Ensenyat, J.A. Eds., World Islands in Prehistory - International Insular Investigation. V Deia International Conference of Prehistory. BAR International Series 1095, 420-427.


Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O., Schrenk, F. , Bromage, T. G. 1999: The Malawi Rift: Biogeography, Ecology and Coexistence of Homo and Paranthropus. Journal of the Science of Man, Anthropologie, XXXVII, 3:221-231.

Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O., Abel, R., Schrenk, F. , Bromage, T. G., Juwayeyi, Y. M. 1999: The first Paranthropus from the Malawi Rift. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 121-127.

Kullmer, O. 1999: Evolution of African Plio-Pleistocene Suids (Suidae; Artiodactyla) Based on Tooth Pattern Analysis. Eds.: Schrenk, F. & Gruber, G., Current Research 2 (Plio-Pleistocene Mammalian Evolution). Kaupia, Darmstädter Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte, 9:1-34.

Sandrock, O., Dauphin, Y., Kullmer, O., Abel, R., Denys C. 1999: MALEMA: Preliminary taphonomic analysis of an African hominid locality. Comptes Rendus Academie de Sciences. Paris 328:133-139.

Grubb, P., Sandrock, O., Kullmer, O., Abel, R., Schrenk, F. 1999: Relationships between Eastern and Southern African Mammal Faunas. - In: African Climate Change, Biogeography and Hominid Evolution. Eds.: T.G. Bromage & F. Schrenk, Part III, Chap. 17: 253-267, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Schrenk, F., Kullmer, O., Ring, U., Betzler, Ch., Sandrock, O., Abel, R. 1997: Geologie, Paläontologie und Paläoanthropologie des Malawi-Rifts. - Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 201: 409-419, 6 Abb., 1 Tab..


Kullmer, O., Doukas, C. 1995: The deciduous dentition of Mesopithecus pentelicus WAGNER (Primates, Mammalia). - In: The Vertebrate Locality Maramena (Macedonia, Greece) at the Turolian-Ruscinian Boundry (Neogene). Ed.: N. Schmidt-Kittler, Münchner Geowissienschaftliche Abhandlungen. (A) 28: 65-74, 3 pls., 9 figs., 2 tabs..


Selection of other contributions  



Krueger-Janson, U., Schulz, D., Kullmer, O. 2013: Anteriore Ästhetik durch posteriore Funktion?! Quintessenz Zahntechnik 39(8):1024-1064.   


Kullmer, O. 2010: Zahntechnik und Paläoanthropologie, Der Okklusion auf der Spur Quintessenz Zahntechnik 36 (8):1016-1019.


Engel, T., Forman, M., Holzförster, F., Grimm, K., Grimm, M., Kullmer, O. & Lutz, H. 2009: Forschungsprojekt „Urrhein-Ablagerungen bei Eppelsheim – Dinotheriensande in Rheinhessen“: Jahresbericht 2008. – Mitteilungen der Rheinischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 30: 34-36.

Schrenk, F., Kullmer, O., Sandrock, O. 2009: „Open Source“ vs. „Missing Link“ – Der aufrechte Gang entstand mehrmals! Natur und Museum, 139 (9/10): 270-279.

Schrenk, F., Kullmer, O. 2009: Der Ursprung der Gattung Mensch. Natur und Museum, 139 (9/10): 280-289.

Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F. 2009: Paläo-Cuisine – Ein Erfolgsrezept auf dem Weg zum Homo sapiens. Natur und Museum, 139 (9/10): 290-301.

Kullmer, O., 2009: Zähne – Ein Schlüssel zur Vielfalt der Säugetiere, Natur und Museum, 139 (1/2): 58.


Müller, S., Kullmer, O., Wenzel, T. 2008: Sangiran II – Eine Schädelkalotte und Ihre wissenschaftliche Deutung, Natur und Museum 138 (1/2): 30-31.


Kullmer O., Menz U. 2007: Sonderausstellung: Menschheit in 3D – Im Fokus digitaler Techniken. Natur und Museum, 137 (11/12): 291-292.

Winzen, O., Kullmer, O. 2007: Opto-elekronische Vermessung und 3D-Rekonstruktion ermöglichen Analyse der Nahrungsaufnahme, Digital Dental News, I. Jahrgang, April 2007:62-66.


Habersetzer, J., Kullmer, O., Gudo, M. 2006: Neue Wege ins Körperinnere durch 3D-Technologie. Natur und Museum, 136 (11/12), 276-277.

Kullmer, O. 2006: Präzisionswerkzeuge der Evolution – Okklusionsflächen im Wandel (koreanische Übersetzung), Dental Dialogue, The international Journal of Dental Technology, 3(1): 20-28.

Lutz, H., Forman, M., Engel, T., Kullmer, O., Sommer, J. and Holzförster, F. 2006: Forschungsprojekt „Urrhein-Ablagerungen bei Eppelsheim - Dinotheriensande in Rheinhessen“: Jahresbericht 2005. - Rheinische Naturforschende Gesellschaft Mitteilungen 27: 35-38.


Kullmer, O. 2005: Precision Tools in Evolution – Changing Occlusal Surfaces. Dental Dialogue, The international Journal of Dental Technology, 5(3): 46-56.

Kullmer, O. 2005: Das Geheimnis der Schweinezähne. Natur und Museum, 135 (5/6), 137-138.

Kullmer, O. 2005: Expeditionen ins Afar Dreieck – Fossiliensuche unter äthiopischer Sonne. Natur und Museum, 135 (3/4), 58-67.


Kullmer, O. 2004: Präzisionswerkzeuge der Evolution – Okklusionsflächen im Wandel, Dental Dialogue, Internationales Journal für die Zahntechnik, 5.Jahrgang, 2004/3:96-104.

Kullmer, O. 2004: Studio evolutivo delle superfici occlusali, Dental Dialogue, Rivista internazionale di orthotecnica, anno XI, 2004/4:312-320.


Winzen, O., Huck, M., Engel, K., Kullmer, O. 2003: Opto-elektronische Vermessung und 3D-Rekonstruktion ermöglichen Analyse der Nahrungsaufnahme. Natur und Museum, 133 (4).


Kullmer, O., Engel, K., Schrenk, F. 2002: Dreidimensionale Vermessungstechniken erweitern paläontologische Forschung – Virtuelle Zahnmodelle zur Analyse komplexer Zahnoberflächen. Natur und Museum, 132 (7), 225-256.

Kullmer, O., Huck, M., Schrenk, F. 2002: Hominidenzähne im Internet – HOTPAD. Natur und Museum, 132 (11), 404-407.

Schrenk, F., Kullmer, O., Ratzel, S. 2002: Exponat des Monats November: Fossilien aus chinesischen Apotheken. Natur und Museum, 132 (11), 423-424.


Sandrock, O., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Bromage, T.G. 2001: Biogeography of Homo and Paranthropus in the Malawi Rift. In (M. Schultz et al., Hrsg.) Schnittstelle Mensch – Umwelt in Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft: Proceedings – 3. Kongress der GfA, S. 15-19. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag.


DVD – Publication (with ISBN-No.)


 Weber, G.W., Seidler, H., Woldearagay, K., Macchiarelli, R., Bondioli, L., Illerhaus, B., Kullmer, O. 2004: 3rd Lower Molar, Australopithecus, c.f. A. afarensis, Gll33 – Digital@rchive of fossil hominoids.