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Sonne Expedition - FS Sonne SO239

Auf der Suche nach neuen Arten

15.04.2015, 14:38 von Benutzer Viola Siegler, Kommentare 1 Kommentar

„Wurde das nicht alles bereits im 19. Jahrhundert erforscht?“ werde ich oft gefragt, wenn ich den Leuten erzähle, dass ich Taxonomin bin. Im Allgemeinen haben die Leute ja eine Vorstellung davon, was das Arbeitsgebiet von Taxonomen umfasst – das Identifizieren, Benennen und Beschreiben von Arten, sowie deren Verbindung und Verwandtschaft untereinander zu vergleichen. Aber es ist bei weitem noch nicht alles erforscht und es liegt noch eine Menge Arbeit vor uns. 

Wurm-Schönheiten der Tiefsee: Eine Sammlung von Borstenwürmern fotografiert während der EcoResponse-Expedition. Fotos: Lenka Neal & Paulo Bonifácio, IFREMER
Wurm-Schönheiten der Tiefsee:
Eine Sammlung von Borstenwürmern
fotografiert während der EcoResponse-Expedition.
Fotos: Lenka Neal & Paulo Bonifácio, IFREMER

Und wenn man erst einmal die Tiefsee hinab taucht, kann man feststellen, dass sie nicht nur unbeschreiblich groß, dunkel und kalt ist, sondern auch eine unglaubliche Vielfalt an Arten dort vorkommen. Vor allem wirbellose Organismen, die im oder auf dem Sediment leben, sind sehr divers und die meisten Arten bislang noch unbekannt. Die schlamm-liebenden Borstenwürmer, welche eng mit den Regenwürmern bei Ihnen im Garten verwandt sind, machen einen großen Teil der Tiefsee-Makrofauna aus. Zur letzteren zählen Tiere, die groß genug sind, um auf einem 300-µm Sieb liegen zu bleiben.

In der Vergangenheit wurden Tiere in Formaldehyd konserviert, da man nur an äußeren Merkmalen interessiert war. Allerdings wurde DNS in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten zu einem unverzichtbaren Werkzeug für Taxonomen. Denn genetische Unterschiede können auch dazu genutzt werden, um Arten voneinander abzugrenzen. Leider sind gut erhaltene Individuen aus der Tiefsee sehr selten, und die Erklärung dafür ist sehr einfach. Stellen Sie sich einmal vor, Sie sind ein auf dem Meeresgrund lebender Wurm. Plötzlich kommt dieses schwere metallene Gerät, genannt Kastengreifer, auf Sie zu und bringt Sie über 4000 m durch die Wassersäule, durch schwindenden Druck und steigende Temperaturen an die Wasseroberfläche. Dann werden Sie durch eine Reihe von Sieben mit sehr geringer Maschenweite gespült, um Sie vom umgebenden Sediment zu trennen, was unter Umständen mehrere Stunden dauern kann. Kein Wunder, dass Sie danach nicht mehr so gut aussehen! Deswegen nutzen alle Wissenschaftler hier an Bord einen vorsichtigeren Weg, bei dem alle Tiere (und auch die Wissenschaftler!) bei 4°C kalt gehalten werden und dann das Sediment vorsichtig gesiebt wird. Die Individuen werden „lebend“ sortiert, um eine DNS-Extraktion zu ermöglichen und sie gleichzeitig mit einem Foto zu katalogisieren. Denn einige Merkmale (wie die Pigmentierung) gehen bei der Konservierung in Alkohol verloren. Mit einem Blick auf die Fotos können Sie nun selbst entscheiden, ob wir unsere Arbeit gut gemacht haben. Würmer sind nicht nur häufig anzutreffen, äußerst artenreich und für die Umwelt von Bedeutung, sondern auch wunderschön. Wir hoffen, da stimmen Sie uns zu!

Lenka Neal, Universität Gothenburg


Kristian Fauchald (1935-2015)

Kristian Fauchald

Während wir unseren Blogbeitrag über unsere Lieblingsgruppe, die Polychaeten, verfassten, erfuhren wir vom Tod von Kristian Fauchald am 4. April -  dem bekanntesten Polychaeten-Forscher der Welt. Dieser Eintrag ist ihm gewidmet.
Kristian Fauchald (der beinahe 80 Jahre alt wurde) veröffentlichte ca. 90 Fachartikel als Erst- oder Co-Autor. In diesen hat er drei Polychaetenfamilien und über 250 Arten beschrieben.

Alle Polychaetologen kennen sein Meisterstück The Polychaete Worms. Definitions and Keys to the Orders, Damilies and Genera (1977), das durch seinen pinken Buchumschlag auch als  „das pinke Buch“  bekannt ist. Ein weiterer seiner Klassiker ist The Diet of Worms (1979, zusammen mit P. Jumars). Beide Werke sind bis heute die Hauptnachschlagewerke  für Polychaetologen. Es gibt aber noch eine Reihe anderer Bücher und Artikel über die Taxonomie, Ökologie und Phylogenie, die er in seiner mehr als 50 Jahre andauernden Karriere verfasst hat. Zweifellos hat er ein großes Erbe hinterlassen - für die Wissenschaft und die nächste Generation von Meeresbiologen.

Ich (Paulo Bonifácio) habe Krisitan beim ersten Lateinameriknischen Symposium für Polychaeten 2006 persönlich getroffen. Es war mein erstes Poster über Polychaeten auf einem wissenschaftlichen Symposium. Leider hatte ich bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt kaum Erfahrung mit der englischen Sprache, und als Kristian auf mich zukam und mit mir über meine Arbeit sprechen wollte, konnte ich ihn leider nicht verstehen. Ich war so unglaublich schüchtern diesem „Star“ gegenüber zu stehen, dass ich überhaupt nichts sagen konnte. Alles, was ich tat, war lächeln. Er antwortete mit ebenfalls mit einemLächeln und so wusste ich, dass mein Poster nicht so schlecht sein konnte.

Wir haben einen großen Zoologen, einen Lehrer, einen Mentor, einen Kollegen, ein Vorbild oder einfach einen der größten Polychaetenverehrer der Welt verloren.

Danke Kristian, wir werden dich nie vergessen.
Paulo Bonifácio, Lenka Neal, Lénaïck Menot, Ana Hilário

Paulo Bonifácio (Ifremer)


The Species’ Quest

“But hasn’t all this been done in the 19th century?” I get often asked this question when I say that I work as a taxonomist. People generally have an idea as to what taxonomists do - identifying, naming and describing species, as well as working out the relationships among them, but believe us, there is still plenty to do.

Worm beauties of the deep: A collection of polychaete worms photographed during the EcoResponse cruise. Lenka Neal & Paulo Bonifácio.
Worm beauties of the deep:
A collection of polychaete worms
photographed during the EcoResponse cruise.
Photo: Lenka Neal & Paulo Bonifácio.

Once you enter the deep sea you don’t only realize that is vast, dark and cold, but also a reservoir of unknown biodiversity, particularly among invertebrates living inside the mud with majority of species new to science.  Particularly mud loving polychaetes, marine worms closely related to earthworms that you can find in your back garden, form an abundant part of the deep-sea macrofauna (animals large enough to be retained 300 micron mesh sieve).

In the past animals were preserved in formalin and used solely for morphological examination.  However in recent decades DNA has become an indispensable tool to taxonomists as differences in DNA sequences can be used to distinguish between different species. Sadly, beautifully preserved specimens are still a rarity in deep-sea collections. It is easy to see why. Imagine that you are a worm living on the abyssal floor. Suddenly this heavy metal instrument called box core (bear with us for a moment on this one!), comes towards you brings you up through 4000 m of water column to the surface through changing pressure and temperature.  Then you are being passed through a series of very fine mesh sieves in order to be separated from the mud and this process can take several hours. No wonder that you no longer look so good! Therefore a careful approach will be adopted by scientists here, keeping all animals (and scientists!) cold by working in environmentally controlled labs (set at 4°C) and very gentle sieving of the mud. Specimens will be “live” sorted for successful DNA extraction and photographed to catalogue some information (i.e. pigmentation) that may be eventually lost following preservation in ethanol. You can judge for yourself if we did a good job by examining the photos published here. Worms are not only abundant, species rich and ecologically important, but they can also be a thing of beauty. We hope you would agree.

Narrated by Lenka Neal, University Gothenburg


Kristian Fauchald (1935-2015)

Kristian Fauchald (1935-2015)

While completing this text dedicated to our favourite group, the polychaetes, we learnt about the death of Kristian Fauchald on April 4th, the best-known polychaetologist in the world. We dedicate this work to his memory.

Kristian Fauchald (almost 80 years old) produced around 90 single or co-authored publications resulting in description of three families and more than 250 species of polychaetes.

All polychaetologists know his chef-d'œuvre The Polychaete Worms. Definitions and Keys to the Orders, Families and Genera (1977) universally known as "the pink book" because of its pink cover. Another classic is The Diet of Worms (1979, in collaboration with P. Jumars). Both texts are still widely used by scientists to this day. There are many more examples of books and articles on taxonomy, ecology and phylogeny produced during his more than 50 years-long carrier. There is no doubt about his legacy to science for the next generations of marine biologists.

I (Paulo Bonifácio) met Kristian during the First Latin American Symposium of Polychaeta in 2006. It was my first time at a scientific symposium, presenting my poster on polychaetes. I had a little exposure to English language up to that point, so when Kristian came to me and wanted to talk about my work, sadly I was unable to understand him. I was so shy to be in front of this “star” and unable to respond all I could do was to smile. He replied with another smile and I knew that my poster was not so bad.

We lost a great zoologist, a teacher, a mentor, a colleague, an example to be followed, or quite simply one of biggest polychaete lovers in the world.

Thank you Kristian, you will be remembered forever.
Paulo Bonifácio, Lenka Neal, Lénaïck Menot, Ana Hilário


Narrated by Paulo Bonifácio (Ifremer)



Vorheriger Eintrag | Nächster Eintrag

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