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Mit den Augen eines Tiefsee-Roboters

01.04.2015, 10:50 von Benutzer Viola Siegler, Kommentare 10 Kommentare

Mit den Augen eines Tiefsee-Roboters


Nach acht Tagen Transit zur ersten Station und voller Erwartungen ist die EcoResponse Expedition zum pazifischen Manganknollengebiet in der CCZ nun in vollem Gange und seit einer Woche nehmen wir nun Proben im deutschen Lizenzgebiet. Während dieser Forschungsreise wollen wir zum Verständnis der benthischen (d.h. am Meeresboden lebenden) Gemeinschaft in der Knollenregion, sowie der ökologischen Prozesse, die die Vielfalt und Verbreitung von Arten dort bestimmen, beitragen. Diese Informationen sind essenziell, um mögliche Folgen des Knollenabbaus und das Erholungspotenzial der Fauna abschätzen zu können.

Hunderte von Arten können in den Manganknollenfeldern gefunden werden, beginnend bei mikroskopisch kleinen Tieren, die nur durch langwieriges Sortieren der Proben unter dem Mikroskop oder molekulare Methoden erkannt werden können, bis hin zu größeren Lebensformen, die mehrere Zentimeter messen und sogar mit dem bloßen Auge gut erkennbar sind. Letztere sind gemeinhin als Megafauna bekannt und schließen beispielsweise Korallen, Schwämme, Stachelhäuter, Zehnfußkrebse und Fische mit ein.

Megafauna ist per Definition groß genug, um auf Fotografien oder Videomaterial erkannt zu werden. Deshalb können Unterwasserfahrzeuge, die mit HD-Kameras ausgestattet sind, benutzt werden, um große Gebiete des Meeresbodens und das Vorkommen von Organismen zu dokumentieren. Während der EcoResponse Expedition werden wir den Unterwasser-Roboter (oder remotely-operated vehicle (ROV)) Kiel 6000 von GEOMAR nutzen, um in die Tiefsee hinabzutauchen und einen Blick auf die benthische Megafauna werfen - und dies nicht nur von Knollenfeldern, sondern auch von benachbarten Seebergen in der Region. Wir möchten damit klären, ob es Übereinstimmungen  zwischen beiden Lebensräumen gibt und ob eventuell dieselben Arten dort zu finden sind. Daraus könnten wir ableiten, ob Seeberge, die vermutlich nicht vom Knollenabbau betroffen sein werden, als Refugium für die Tiefsee-Megafauna dienen könnten und somit eine wichtige Rolle in der Wiederbesiedelung von gestörten Gebieten spielen würden.

echinoid
Echinoid and Polychaete in the- CCZ manganese
nodule area; Seeigel und Borstenwurm im
Manganknollenfeld- der CCZ

Jedes Foto, das während der ROV-Tauchgänge aufgenommen wird, wird georeferenziert, d.h. einem genauen Längen- und Breitengrad zugeordnet. Deshalb kann man jede Beobachtung am Meeresboden auf Karten genau festzuhalten. Zusätzlich können Video-Transekte in einer konstanten Höhe und mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit für eine quantitative Gemeinschaftsanalyse herangezogen werden. Man kann also bestimmen, wie viele Arten und Individuen pro Fläche vorkommen. Nichtsdestotrotz gibt es Grenzen dieser Methode; manche Merkmale, die zur Identifikation eines Lebewesens auf Artniveau nötig sind, können auf einem Foto nicht erkannt werden. Deshalb müssen einige Individuen zur genauen Identifizierung eingesammelt werden, um damit die Bestimmung basierend auf den Filmaufnahmen zu bestätigen (was Groundtruthing genannt wird).

Einige Tiergruppen werden auch in größerer Anzahl beprobt, um genetisch zu untersuchen, wie  Populationen von Seebergen und Knollengebieten miteinander verknüpft sind. Tiefsee-Gorgonien der Familie Primnoidae und Schlangensterne (Ophiuroiden) sind für dieses Projekt von besonderer Bedeutung, da sie in der Manganknolleregion eine relativ hohe Individuendichte aufweisen. Mit dem beweglichen Arm des ROV und einer Saugpumpe werden die Tiere quasi „per Hand“ vom Meeresboden vorsichtig in eine Bio-Box gelegt und dann an die Oberfläche gebracht, wo sie möglichst schnell fotografiert und für morphologische (äußerliche) und molekulare Analysen konserviert werden.
Unsere bisherigen Beobachtungen während der ROV-Tauchgänge im Knollengebiet zeigen trotz der geringen Verfügbarkeit von Nahrung und großen Tiefen eine unerwartet hohe Dichte an Megafauna. Weitere Tauchgänge in bislang unerkundete Gebiete sind geplant, und es werden mit Gewissheit noch einige erstaunliche Entdeckungen auf uns warten. Also bleibt dran, um mehr Geheimnisse über die Tiefsee zu erfahren.

Text: Pedro Ribeiro, MARE/IMAR- U. of the Azores

It's a ROV's life


After a long 8-day transit to the first station, and much anticipation, the EcoResponse cruise to the Pacific CCZ nodule province is now fully in motion, with one week already dedicated to science in the German license area. This cruise focuses on contributing to a multidisciplinary understanding of the benthic communities present in the nodule area at abyssal depths, as well as the ecological processes driving species diversity and distribution. Gathering such information is essential to predict possible impacts of nodule mining and the recovery potential of benthic fauna.
Hundreds of species can be found on manganese nodule fields, from microscopic organisms that can only be detected by sorting through samples of the seafloor with a microscope or using molecular techniques, to larger life forms measuring at least a few centimetres and thus visible to the naked eye. The latter, commonly termed as megafauna, include for example corals, sponges, echinoderms, decapods and fish.

4 Asteroidea clinging to a stalk at aseamount; Vier Seesterne hängen an einem Stiel eines toten Tiefseeorganismus
4 Asteroidea clinging to a stalk at aseamount;
Vier Seesterne hängen an einem Stiel
eines toten Tiefseeorganismus

Given that megafauna is by definition sufficiently large to be detected on photographs or video, underwater vehicles equipped with high-definition cameras can be used to cover extensive areas of the seafloor and document the occurrence of these organisms. During the EcoResponse cruise we will be employing one of such remotely-operated vehicles (or ROVs), the Kiel 6000 operated by GEOMAR, to dive to abyssal depths and look at benthic megafauna inhabiting not only the nodule fields but also seamounts located in their vicinity. Our goal is to investigate the degree of similarity between communities present on both habitats, in order to assess whether seamounts, which are less likely to be impacted by mining, may serve as refuge for abyssal megafauna and therefore play a crucial role in the recolonization of disturbed areas.

Given that every image collected during ROV dives is georeferenced, it is possible to accurately map every observation along the seafloor. Moreover, video transects can be conducted at constant altitude and speed to enable quantitative community analysis. There are, however, limitations to this approach because some of the characters used to identify organisms to the species level cannot be examined from images. Therefore it is necessary to collect a few specimens for identification, so that we can validate video annotations (a procedure called groundtruthing).
Particular taxa are also being collected in larger numbers to assess the degree of connectivity among seamount and nodule faunas using population genetics. Primnoid octocorals and ophiuroids are specifically targeted for this study, given their relative abundance in the area. Using the ROV's manipulator arm and suction sampler, fragile specimens are 'hand-picked' from the seafloor into a chamber or bio-box and brought up to the surface, where they are quickly photographed and preserved for morphological and molecular analysis.

Observations made so far during the ROV dives show a surprisingly abundant presence of megafauna in the nodule area, considering the low amount of food available at these great depths. As more dives are planned for areas which are virtually unexplored, many exciting discoveries are surely yet to come. So stay tuned for more secrets from the abyss.
Text: Pedro Ribeiro, MARE/IMAR- U. of the Azores



Vorheriger Eintrag | Nächster Eintrag

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