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07/12/2016 - Paradise Lost? – Loss of large fruit-eating birds threatens tropical forests

Frankfurt/ Germany, December 7th 2016. A new study shows the importance of large fruit-eating birds for the regeneration of tropical forests. Plants with large seeds recruit more seedlings than those with small seeds, but are fragile forest elements because they solely depend on large birds for the dispersal of their seeds. Scientists from the Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre highlight that the decline of large fruit-eating birds due to hunting and other human pressures is therefore a severe threat for tropical forests.

 Grey breasted mountain toucan
Large fruit-eating birds such as the Grey-breasted
mountain toucan (Andigena hypoglauca) are crucial
for the regeneration of diverse tropical forests.
Copyright: Matthias Schleuning, Senckenberg

More than 90 % of tropical trees rely on fruit-eating animals, especially birds, for the dispersal of their seeds. Adding to previous evidence, new research shows that large birds are more important than small and medium-sized birds for plant regeneration. “Especially large fruit-eating birds are declining due to habitat loss and hunting in the tropics. This is likely to cause a poor regeneration of some plant species. It may bring about profound change to the tropical forest as we know it.” warns Marcia Muñoz, Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre.

Muñoz and her team conducted a study on fruit removal and seedling recruitment in a tropical forest. It showed that large-bodied bird species weighing up to 1400 grams contributed more to fruit removal than small-bodied species. Large birds have higher energy demands and are able to eat a wider spectrum of fruit sizes than small birds. This relates to another important observation – some large-seeded plants can only be dispersed by large birds.

Cauca Guan MMunoz
One of the most important fruit-eating birds
observed by the team was the highly endangered
turkey-sized Cauca Guan (Penelope perspicax).
Copyright: Marcia Muñoz, Senckenberg

From the plants' perspective, the scientists found that fruits with small seeds were more frequently eaten than large fruits as they were more accessible to all birds from the forest. "This means if large birds become extinct in a tropical forest, not only the large-seeded plant species, but also the small-seeded plant species lose important dispersers",  says Muñoz.

In the process of forest regeneration, fruit removal is followed by seedling establishment. Plants with large and heavy seeds recruited more seedlings than plants with light seeds. Large-seeded plant species thus compensated their lower dispersal rate because they had a competitive advantage over small-seeded species and could better tolerate low light or other hazardous conditions.

Palm species MMunoz
Fruit removal and seed dispersal of
plant taxa with large fruits, such as palms,
depend exclusively on large bird species.
Copyright: Marcia Muñoz, Senckenberg

“Our results highlight that plants with large seeds are particularly successful in tropical forests and contribute an important part of their diversity. So if we are to conserve this diversity, we need to protect large fruit-eating animals that are crucial for the maintenance of these ecosystems”, says Matthias Schleuning, a researcher at Senckenberg and senior author of the study.

The study was carried out in two adjacent protected areas of tropical forest on the eastern side of the Colombian Andes. Researchers recorded the removal of about 17,000 fruits by birds and measured the most important characteristics of birds and plants, such as body size or seed mass. In addition, the researchers counted how many seedlings of each plant species established at their study sites.


Marcia Carolina Muñoz Neyra
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
Tel. +49 (0)69- 7542 1876

Dr. Matthias Schleuning
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
Tel. +49 (0)69- 7542 1892

Sabine Wendler
Press officer
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
Tel. +49 (0)69 7542 1818


Muñoz, M. C., Schaefer, H. M., Böhning-Gaese, K. and Schleuning, M. (2016), Importance of animal and plant traits for fruit removal and seedling recruitment in a tropical forest. Oikos. doi:10.1111/oik.03547

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