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Sonne Expedition - FS Sonne SO239

Was machst du, wenn du zwei Monate auf dem FS Sonne im zentralen Pazifik feststeckst?

23/03/2015, 15:10 von |Benutzer| Viola Siegler, comments 1 comment

Was machst du, wenn du zwei Monate auf dem FS Sonne im zentralen Pazifik feststeckst?


Und da gibt es einiges zu tun. Du könntest zum Beispiel Vögel oder Meeressäuger beobachten. Du könntest im Sportraum trainieren oder sogar in der schiffseigenen Sauna entspannen. Du könntest auch deine Liebe zum Stricken und Sticken wiederentdecken. Dies sind nur einige Möglichkeiten. Aber wenn du ich wärst, dann wärst du hier, um Forschung zu betreiben! Und das bedeutet für mich: Würmer!

Multicorer
Multicorer, Copyright Lara Macheriotou

Ich meine da nicht einfach nur irgendwelche alltäglichen Regenwürmer im Garten, sondern mikroskopisch kleine Würmer aus der Tiefsee, mehr als 3 Kilometer unter der Wasseroberfläche. Aber wie kommt man an diese Würmer ran? Du schickst ein weltraum-landekapsel-ähnliches Gerät (auch bekannt als Multicorer) hinab auf den Meeresboden. Dieser enthält 12 Akrylzylinder, die in den weichen Meeresboden gedrückt werden, dann auf beiden Seiten schließen und je einen 60 cm langen Bohrkern sammeln. Und genau dort findest du diese Würmer, wissenschaftlich Nematoden genannt. Nematoden sind so klein, dass ich sie aus dem Sediment extrahieren bzw. zentrifugieren muss, um sie genauer zu untersuchen.

Mein persönlicher Auftrag (oder Doktorarbeit, wie sie es nennen) ist es herauszufinden, welche Arten in unserem Probengebiet vorkommen und wie deren Populationen miteinander verbunden sind. Dafür werde ich sie sowohl mit morphologischen als auch genetischen Methoden identifizieren, zum Beispiel über artspezifische DNS-Fragmente. Die Frage, warum einige Arten in bestimmten Arealen zu finden sind und andere nicht, werde ich versuchen anhand unterschiedlicher Umweltfaktoren wie etwa dem Anteil an organischem Kohlenstoff, sowie Korngröße und der Geomorphologie zu erklären.

Letztendlich werde ich versuchen herauszufinden, ob Gebiete, die etwa 10 Kilometer voneinander getrennt sind, von denselben Arten bewohnt sind und ob zwischen deren Populationen Genfluss besteht. Da die Clarion-Clipperton Bruchzone bislang biologisch kaum erforscht ist, werden meine Analysen neue Informationen über dieses Ökosystem liefern.

Lara Macheriotou, Gent University


What to do when you are “stuck” on the RV Sonne in the central Pacific for 2 months?


Well, you can do a lot of bird and marine mammal watching. You can work out in the gym or even relax in the spacious on-board sauna. You could also rediscover your love for knitting and embroidery. Those are just some of the options. But if you are me, you are here to do some science! And that means worms!

nodule and nematode
nodule and nematode, Copyright Lara Macheriotou

Not just any kind of regular backyard earth-worm, but microscopically small worms from the abyss more than 3 km below the sea surface. How does one get these worms then? You send this funky lunar-lander-looking apparatus (aka multi-corer) down to the seafloor which holds 12 plastic open cylinders. These are then pushed into the soft bottom, they close on either side and collect a 60cm-long sediment core. And that’s where you will find the worms, or more scientifically, the nematodes. Since they are so small I need to extract them from the sediment in order to study them and this is achieved through a centrifugation step which separates the sediment from the much lighter nematodes.

My personal mission (or PhD as they call it) is to figure out which species are in the area, why, and how their populations are connected. To this end I will identify them using morphological characteristics and molecular methods, i.e. sequencing species-specific DNA fragments. I will try to relate the presence or absence of species to different environmental characteristics such as Total Organic Carbon content (TOC), sediment grain size or habitat geomorphology.
Finally, I will try to uncover if areas that are separated by 10’s of km’s share the same species, and whether these are exchanging genetic material, i.e. interbreeding with one another. This area, the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone is mostly undescribed biologically and so these analyses will provide new information concerning the character of deep-sea ecosystems.

Lara Macheriotou, Gent University



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1 comment |zu| "Was machst du, wenn du zwei Monate auf dem FS Sonne im zentralen Pazifik feststeckst?"

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