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Sonne Expedition - FS Sonne SO239

Die Vielfalt der Schwämme

07/04/2015, 13:39 von |Benutzer| Viola Siegler, comments 1 comment

Die Vielfalt der Schwämme


Schwämme sind ausschließlich sessile und kolonial lebende Tiere, die in allen aquatischen Lebensräumen, mit Ausnahme von antarktischen Süßwasserhabitaten vorkommen. Aktuell sind 8.613 Schwammarten beschrieben. Schwämme werden in vier Klassen eingeteilt: Homoscleromorpha, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida und Calcarea. Sie sind Suspensionsfresser mit einer einzigartigen Morphologie; sie verfügen über ein System interner wasserführender Kanäle und Kammern, die mit Kragengeißelzellen ausgekleidet sind. Während des Filtrierens, entnehmen diese Zellen dem umgebenden Wasser Sauerstoff und partikuläres organisches Material und sondern Exkretions- und Reproduktionsprodukte ab. Als Basis haben Schwämme ein fibröses Skelettsystem aus Sponginfasern, welche oftmals Kalk- oder Silikatnadeln ummanteln; diese Spicula zeigen eine hohe Vielfalt in Größe und Form (Abb. A). Die Klassifizierung der Schwämme basiert primär auf Spikula- und Skelettmorphologie. Die Unterscheidung von Arten wird jedoch auch durch Fortschritte molekularbiologischer Methoden immer einfacher.

variety of sponges
Abb. A: Variety of sponge spicule
picture taken from Van Soest et al

Schwämme haben zahlreiche funktionale Rollen in ihren Habitaten und sind dadurch sehr wichtig für andere Organismen, z.B. durch die Assoziation mit anderen Organismen oder die Produktion und Freisetzung von Sekundärmetaboliten. Assoziationen von Schwämmen und anderen Organismen sind zahlreich und z.T. sehr komplex. Schwämme formen Mikrohabitate für kleinere schwammassoziierte Organismen (hauptsächlich Bakterien, Algen und kleinere Weichtiere) und diese nutzen ihren Wirt als Nahrungsquelle, Substrat, Schutzraum oder Kinderstube. Haarsterne und Schlangensterne siedeln häufig auf Schwämmen oder ihren Stielen und erhalten somit eine exponierte Position in der bodennahen Wasserströmung, wodurch für diese die Nährstoffverfügbarkeit erhöht wird. Sekundärmetabolite werden oftmals als chemische Verteidigung gegen Biofouling und als Fraßschutz genutzt. Diese bioaktiven Verbindungen sind auch interessant für die Pharmazie und andere Wirtschaftszweige, denn sie zeigen antibakterielle, -virale, -algale und –fungale Wirkung, nützen aber auch gegen Biofouling und können brandhemmend sein.

hyalonema
Abb.B: Hyalonema sponge with-
associated fauna on the stalk
Photo copyright Geomar

In der oligotrophen Tiefsee sind die Artenzahlen niedriger als auf dem Kontinentalschelf und die Zusammensetzung der Schwammgemeinschaften wird eher von Hexactinelliden als Demospongiern dominiert. Die Morphologie ist ganz klar an die extremen Bedingungen in der Tiefsee angepasst, die Ausbildung von langen Stielen oder Wurzelbüscheln ist hier keine Seltenheit. Das Vorkommen von carnivoren (räuberischen) Schwämmen der Familie der Cladorhizidae ist ebenfalls aus der Tiefsee bekannt. Ein Cladorhizidae, evtl. ein Vertreter der Gattung Abyssocladia, wurde bereits während der SO239 EcoResponse-Expedition gesammelt und beprobt (Abb. B). Stiele von Glasschwämmen (auch von toten Individuen) bilden eine wichtige Form von Hartsubstrat und dienen in der Tiefsee möglicherweise als Trittsteine für die Verbreitung von Arten, z.B. die Stiele der Gattung Hyalonema. Von Letzteren konnten schon mehrere Vertreter während dieser Expedition gesammelt werden (Abb. C).

abyssocladia
Abb. C: Abyssocladia sponge from the- CCZ
Copyright Daniel Kersken

 

 

 

 

 

 


Daniel Kersken, Senckenberg Frankfurt

 


 
Sponge diversity


Sponges are exclusively sessile and colonial anmals that occur in all aquatic environments with the exception of Antarctic freshwater habitats at high Southern latitudes. Currently, 8,613 sponge species are described. Sponges comprise four classes: Homoscleromorpha, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida and Calcarea. They are suspension feeders with unique morphology, comprising an internal system of water-bearing canals and chamber of ciliated cells. Whilst pumping, these cells remove oxygen and particulate organic matter from the surrounding water and pump out excretion and reproduction products. Sponges have a basic fibrous skeletal system (which consists of spongin fibres often cored by calcareous or siliceous spicules of great diversity in size and shape, Fig. A). The morphological classification of sponges is primarily based on spicule and skeletal morphology. Additionally, advances in molecular techniques provide further insights into species differentiation and higher order classifications.

Sponges have numerous functional roles within their habitats and hence they are  important for other organisms, e.g. associations with other organisms, production and release of secondary metabolites. Associations of sponges and other organisms are numerous and sometimes complex. Sponges form microhabitats for smaller sponge-associated organisms (mainly bacteria, algae and smaller invertebrates) which use their hosts as a substrate, food source, shelter or nursery. Crinoids and brittle stars settle on top or stalks of sponges to obtain an exposed position in the bottom water currents and thus increase their nutrient availability. Secondary metabolites are often used as chemical defense against biofouling and predators. These bioactive compounds are also interesting for pharmaceutical and further economical reasons as they might show antimicrobial, -viral, -algal, -fungal, -fouling and inflammatory effects.

In the oligotrophic deep sea, species numbers are lower compared to shelf areas and the composition of sponge communities changes from demosponge to hexactinellid dominated sponge grounds. The morphology is clearly adapted to the deep sea as morphological features like stalks and root tufts are more common. Carnivorous sponges of the demosponge family Cladorhizidae are also known to occur in the deep sea. One carnivorous sponge, maybe of the genus Abyssocladia, was already sampled during the current SO239 EcoResponse cruise (Fig. B). Stalks of deep-sea hexactinellids (even of dead specimens) are important hard substrata and can potentially function like stepping-stones regarding to species distribution of deep-sea fauna, for instance stalks of the genus Hyalonema which was also sampled during several ROV dives in the course of this expedition (Fig. C).

Daniel Kersken, Senckenberg Frankfurt



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wty123 |schrieb am| 14/07/2017 um 05:40
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