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Sonne Expedition - FS Sonne SO239

Tiefseeschätze

19/03/2015, 09:37 von |Benutzer| Viola Siegler, comments 1 comment

Tiefseeschätze


Unser erstes Untersuchungsgebiet werden wir in vier Tagen erreichen – genügend Zeit also, um unsere Arbeitsregion vorzustellen.
Der Meeresboden des nördlichen Pazifik ist durch zwei markante Bruchzonen gekennzeichnet, die sich von Zentralamerika bis zu den westlichen pazifischen Inseln ziehen. Zwischen diesen beiden Bruchzonen, der sogenannten Clarion-Clipperton Bruchzone (CCZ), liegt der pazifische Manganknollengürtel in einer Tiefe von 4000 bis über 5000 m Tiefe. Der Meeresboden dort bildet jedoch keine flache und homogene Ebene, sondern ist vielmehr durch kleinere und größere Erhebungen (in Form von Seebergen) gekennzeichnet.

nodules
Nodules at the surface of the- seafloor in
the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. 
Copyright- Ifremer, Nodinaut cruise, 2004.

Auf den Ebenen liegen die Manganknollen auf dem weichen Sediment. Bei diesen Knollen handelt sich um Ablagerungen von im Wasser gelösten oder im Porenwasser des Sediments liegenden Mineralien, die sich um einen festen Kern herum ansammeln. Der Wachstumsprozess der Knollen, welcher nur in der Tiefsee stattfinden kann,  verläuft sehr langsam und beträgt nur wenige Millimeter innerhalb von einer Million Jahren. Das Wachstum hängt von der relativ geringen Sedimentationsrate von Partikeln aus den oberen Wasserschichten in die Tiefsee ab. Es kommt jedoch zu einer Unterbindung der Knollenbildung, falls die Sedimentationsrate 10 mm pro 1000 Jahre überschreitet. Nichtsdestotrotz ist die Sedimentationsrate um ein vielfaches größer als das Knollenwachstum. Es bleibt jedoch nach wie vor ein Rätsel, weshalb die Knollen dennoch auf der Oberfläche des Sediments liegen bleiben, anstatt darunter begraben zu werden.
Die Knollen bestehen vor allem aus Mangan und Eisen, enthalten jedoch auch Kupfer, Nickel und Kobalt, was sie für die Bergbauindustrie interessant macht. Bereits in den 70er Jahren begann die Erforschung der Knollen. In der Verabschiedung des internationalen Seerechts durch Vereinten Nationen im Jahr 1982 wurden die Knollen, welche in internationalen Gewässern liegen, als wichtige Ressourcen für die Menschheit erkannt. Die Verwaltung der  Ressourcen obliegt der internationalen Meeresbodenbehörde (ISA) in Kingston, Jamaika. Es ist ausschließlich dort möglich eine Lizenz für Erkundung und den Abbau der Knollen zu beantragen. Bis heute hat die ISA in der CCZ insgesamt 15 Lizenzgebiete mit jeweils einer Fläche von 75000 km2 genehmigt.

Die Manganknollen liegen in Gebieten mit geringen Sedimentationsraten und folglich auch mit geringem Nahrungseintrag. Dennoch ist die Artenvielfalt innerhalb der Region unglaublich hoch. Hunderte von Arten, wie beispielsweise mikroskopisch kleine Würmer und Krebse, kommen in einem Quadratmeter des Tiefseesediments vor. Die Ergebnisse dieser Reise sollen unter anderem auch dazu beitragen die Frage zu klären, warum so viele Arten in so einer ressourcenarmen Umwelt leben können.

 nodules
Nodules vary in size,- density and mineral
composition sometimes over short distances.
Copyright- Ifremer, Nodinaut cruise, 2004.

Ein möglicher Grund könnte sein, dass die tiefen Regionen des Pazifiks nicht so homogen sind, wie einst angenommen wurde. Die Region besteht aus Tiefseeebenen, Hügeln und Seebergen. Zudem nimmt die Primärproduktion des Oberflächewassers von Ost nach West und von Süd nach Nord innerhalb der CCZ ab. Auch variiert die Verteilung und Größe der innerhalb der Region. Neben Gebieten, in denen zahlreiche kleine Knollen den gesamten Meeresboden bedecken, gibt es auch Regionen, in denen vorwiegend größere Knollen vorkommen, die weit voneinander entfernt liegen, sowie Gebiete von mehreren  hundert Metern, in denen überhaupt keine Knollen vorhanden sind. Diese Unterschiede in den Umweltparametern beeinflusst die Artenvielfalt lokal, aber auch regional über die ganze CCZ hinweg.

 


Deep-sea treasures


Another 4 days lie ahead of us before we reach our first station, so time to portray our working area in more detail.
The seafloor of the North Pacific Ocean is dissected by two major fractures, spreading from Central America to the Western Pacific Islands. In between these two fractures, the so-called Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, lies the Pacific nodule belt at depth of 4000 m to over 5000 m. Although abyssal, the deep seafloor there is not a flat and homogeneous plain. Numerous hills cross the seascape as well as larger seamounts.

On the foot of the hills and seamounts, manganese nodules are lying on top of the soft sediments. Manganese nodules are concretions of minerals that are dissolved in the seawater or in sediment pore water but precipitates around a nucleus. The process is quite slow; nodule growth does not exceed a few millimeters per million years and can only develop at abyssal depth. This is because the amount of particles coming from the surface or sedimentation rate is very low. If the sedimentation rate exceeds 10 mm per thousand years nodule formation is inhibited. Still, sedimentation rates are a thousand times higher than nodule growth rates. How can nodules stay at the sediment surface rather than being buried remains enigmatic.

fauna

Fauna size classes

The most abundant minerals in nodules are manganese and iron but they also contain copper, nickel and cobalt, which have long been of interest for the mining industry. Exploration for nodules began in 1970’s. After the signature of the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982, the nodules and their mineral resources located in international waters however became a common heritage of mankind. These mineral resources are now managed by the International Seabed Authority (ISA), which may deliver licenses for the exploration and exploitation of nodules. Up to now, the ISA has granted 15 licenses for the exploration of nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, each covering 75 000 km².
As nodules are lying at great depth, in areas of low sedimentation rates, and thus low food inputs, the fauna there is sparse. Species diversity however is astonishing. Hundreds of species, such as microscopic worms and crustaceans, may be found in just one square meter. How so many species can cohabit in such a resource poor environment is another enigma, we as deep-sea scientists, would like to solve.

One reason may be that the abyssal Pacific is not as homogeneous as we once thought. In addition to the topography, made of a succession of plains, hills and seamounts, the surface primary productivity is decreasing from east to west and south to north in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone. At smaller spatial scale, the size and distribution of the nodules also varies. Small nodules blanketing the seafloor may succeed to large and sparse nodules or areas without nodules within a few hundred meters. So altogether this heterogeneity of the environment may influence species richness both locally and across the CCZ.

Text: Lenaick Menot, Ifremer



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