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Sonne Expedition - FS Sonne SO239

Vom Meeresboden ins Labor

24/04/2015, 15:03 von |Benutzer| Viola Siegler, comments 1 comment

Hier an Bord des Forschungsschiffs SONNE repräsentieren Jennifer Ciomber, Jessika Volz, Vincent Ozegowski und ich die Sektion „Marine Geochemie“ des Alfred Wegener Instituts Bremerhaven, um in Zusammenarbeit mit Kollegen der Jacobs Universität Bremen mögliche Folgen des Tiefsee Bergbaus in der Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone aus einer geowissenschaftlichen Perspektive zu untersuchen. Genauer gesagt wollen wir beobachten, wie das biogeochemische Milieu am und im Meeresboden auf Störungsereignisse reagiert.

Zudem wollen wir herausfinden, ob das biogeochemische Milieu nach einer Störung wieder in den Ursprungszustand zurückkehren kann und falls ja, wie lange dieser Prozess dauern kann. Während der EcoResponse Expedition haben wir die Möglichkeit Spuren von früheren Störungsereignissen zu untersuchen, wie beispielsweise 30 Jahre alte Tests für den Abbau von Manganknollen. Außerdem können wir neue kontrollierte Störungs-Experimente durchführen. Diese ermöglichen es uns die Folgen auf verschiedenen Zeitskalen zu studieren (Jahre bis Jahrzehnte), sowie Veränderungen direkt nach den Störungs-Experimenten  festzustellen.

Schwerelot, Photo: V. Ozegowski
Schwerelot, Foto: V. Ozegowski

Um unsere Ziele zu erreichen bearbeiten wir das Sediment aus dem Schwerelot, dem Multi-Corer und von Push-Kernen, welche vom ROV Kiel 6000 gesammelt werden. Das Schwerelot (Bild 1) ist ein langes Metallrohr, das durch die Kraft des eigenen Gewichtes in den Meeresboden gepresst wird. Mit diesem einfachen, aber effektiven Gerät kann bis zu 10 m tief in das Sediment gebohrt werden. Da das Schwerelot jedoch mehrere Tonnen wiegt wird häufig der obere Teil des Sediments stark gestört. Deshalb ist ein weiteres Gerät zur Probennahme notwendig: der Multi-Corer. Zwar kann dieser nur die ersten ca. 30-40 cm des Sediments beproben, doch dafür erhalten wir eine ungestörte Sedimentoberfläche. Zusätzlich zu diesen klassischen Geräten werden kleine Push-Kerne mit einer Länge von ca. 20 cm mit dem ROV gesammelt. Diese Kerne sind zwar sehr kurz, doch dafür kann der ROV die Push-Kerne mit hoher Präzision am Meeresboden platzieren und ermöglicht es uns 1-2 m breite Spuren früherer Störungsereignisse in Wassertiefen von über 4000 m zu beproben.

 

 

 

Porenwasser wird aus dem Sediment mittels Rhizonen in Kombination mit Spritzen extrahiert, Foto: I. Preuss
Porenwasser wird aus dem Sediment
mittels Rhizonen in Kombination mit
Spritzen extrahiert, Foto: I. Preuss

Die Proben vom Meeresboden an Deck des Schiffes und anschließend in die Labore zu bekommen ist Teil unserer Arbeit als Geowissenschaftler. Im Anschluss daran werden sowohl die Festphase als auch das Porenwasser des Sediments beprobt. Um das Porenwasser aus dem Sediment zu extrahieren, benutzen wir Rhizonen in Kombination mit Spritzen (Bild 2). Die Bedingungen im Labor sollte den in-situ Bedingungen der Tiefsee entsprechen, weshalb alle Arbeiten in gekühlten Laboren bei einer Temperatur von 4°C durchgeführt werden. Erste interessante Ergebnisse haben wir bereits durch Analysen, die an Bord ausgeführt wurden, erhalten. Einige weitere Analysen werden noch nach unserer Rückkehr in den Heimatlaboren durchgeführt. Deshalb betreiben wir einen großen Aufwand, um die Proben nicht der Atmosphäre auszusetzen, um somit eine hohe Qualität für zukünftige Analysen zu gewährleisten.

Laborequipment für geochemische Analysen, Foto: V. Ozegowski
Laborequipment für geochemische
Analysen, Foto: V. Ozegowski

Nachdem das Sediment aus der Tiefsee gewonnen wurde und Beprobung und Analyse durchgeführt wurden, erhalten wir Konzentrationsprofile für zahlreiche Elemente und Substanzen. All die Element-Kreisläufe interagieren miteinander in einem komplexen System gesteuert von Ausfällungs-, Lösungs- und Transportprozessen, sowie biochemischen Reaktionen. Um dieses System zu verstehen ist es ebenfalls notwendig weitere Faktoren, wie die Sedimentationsrate, die Morphologie des Meeresbodens und vieles mehr zu beachten. Biogeochemische Prozesse spielen eine wichtige Rolle sowohl auf regionaler als auch auf globaler Ebene, z.B. dem Klima unsere Erde oder der Verteilung und Menge von Manganknollen. Daher ist es eine bedeutende Aufgabe unser Verständnis biogeochemischer Prozesse im Meeresboden zu erweitern. Durch unsere Forschung während der EcoResponse Expedition an Bord des Forschungsschiffs SONNE hoffen wir neue wertvolle Informationen über die Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone zu erlangen.

Benjamin Löffler, Alfred Wegener Institut Bremerhaven, Deutschland


From mud to mol

Representing the section “Marine Geochemistry” of the Alfred Wegener Institute Bremerhaven and in collaboration with colleagues from the Jacobs University in Bremen, Jennifer Ciomber, Jessica Volz, Vincent Ozegowski and I are here onboard RV SONNE to investigate the possible impacts of deep-sea mining in the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone from a geoscientific perspective. More specifically, we would like to observe how the biogeochemical environment at and in the seafloor responds to disturbance events, that is whether it re-equilibrates and if so, how long it takes.

During the current EcoResponse cruise we have the opportunity to investigate tracks and traces of past disturbance events, such as those from 30-year old mining tests. Additionally, we are able to conduct new controlled disturbance experiments. This allows us to examine responses over different time scales (from years to decades) and also to detect changes immediately after the disturbance.

In order to achieve our goals we process sediment collected by the gravity corer, the multi-corer and push cores retrieved by the ROV Kiel 6000. The gravity corer (Picture 1) is essentially a long metal pipe, which drills itself into the sediment with the force of its own weight. By using this simple but very effective gear we can dig up to 10 m into the seafloor. However, as the gravity corer weighs several tons it tends to disturb the uppermost part of the sediment. Therefore another sampling device – the multi-corer – is needed. It can only retrieve the upper 30-40 cm of the sediment, but delivers an undisturbed sediment-water interface. In addition to these conventional sampling devices small push cores of about 20 cm length are collected by the ROV. These cores may be very short, though the ROV can place the push cores with high precision and thus enables us to sample 1 to 2 meter wide tracks in water depths of more than 4000 m.

Getting the samples back to the vessel and into the labs is part of our work as geoscientists. This is only the first step, though. The obtained sediment has to be sampled for its solid as well as its fluid constituents. We use rhizons, in combination with syringes (Picture 2) to extract the interstitial water from the sediment. This work has to be done in the cold lab at around 4°C reflecting in-situ (deep-sea) conditions to preserve the samples. From on-board analyses of the interstitial water (Picture 3) we quickly received first interesting results, but further analyses will need to be carried out in the labs back home. For this purpose, great care is taken to avoid exposure of our samples to the atmosphere and, thus, to ensure the quality of future analysis.

After retrieving the sediment from the deep sea as well as sampling and analyzing procedures we finally end up with concentration profiles across sediment depth for numerous elements and compounds. All the element cycles are interacting with each other in a complex system of precipitation, dissolution, transport and reaction processes. Understanding this system also requires consideration of environmental factors such as sedimentation rate, seafloor morphology and many more. Biogeochemical processes play a significant role both at a regional and global scale, such as the Earth’s climate or the distribution and abundance of manganese nodules. It is therefore necessary to enhance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the seafloor. Thus, with our research undertaken during the EcoResponse cruise onboard RV SONNE we are hoping to gain some new and valuable information for the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone.

Benjamin Löffler, Alfred Wegener Institute Bremerhaven, Germany

 



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