Systematik und Biogeographie


Die SDEI Abt. Systematik und Biogeographie verbindet Wissenschaftler*innen der Fachrichtung Entomologie, Biogeographie, Ökologie und Molekulargenetik in ihrer Forschung. Die Forscher*innen vernetzen sich ebenso mit den Spezialist*innen innerhalb Senckenbergs sowie national und international.

Die Forschungsschwerpunkte des SDEI liegen in der phylogenetischen Systematik, dass heißt in der stammesgeschichtlichen Untersuchung und Einordnung der Arten in die großen Insektenordnungen Hymenoptera (Hautflügler), Diptera (Zweiflügler), Coleoptera (Käfer), Hemimetabola und Lepidoptera (Schmetterlinge). Ergänzt wird es durch die Schwerpunkte Biogeographie und Ökologie sowie dem Molekularlabor.


Prof. Dr. Thomas Schmitt

Scientific Interests

  • Molecular and classic biogeography
  • Classic and molecular ecology
  • •Evolutionary biology
  • Conservation biology and conservation genetics including landscape genetics
  • Systematics of Lepidoptera

Expertise Skills

  • •DNA analytics (microsatellites, mtDNA sequencing, AFLP, etc.); allozyme electrophoresis
  • Morphometry and morphometrics
  • Transect counts, light trapping, etc.
  • GPS based mark-release recapture
  • Landscape parametrisation (e.g. Ellenberg’s indicator values)
  • GIS applications

Organisms of Interest

  • Butterflies (main group)
  • •Odonates, beetles, caddisflies, tipulids, scorpions
  • Amphibians, reptiles
  • •Montane plants

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Universitäts Professor (W3) für Entomologie, ab 2014

Universität Trier, 2001-2014
Universitäts Professor (W2) für Molekular Biogeografie, 2009-2014
Junior Professor (W1)  für Molekular Biogeografie, 2003-2009
Postdoc, 2001-2003

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1996-2001
Postdoc, 2000-2001
Dissertation 1996-1999; Verteidigung 1999

Universität des Saarlandes, 1989-1996; Universitdade de Lisboa, Portugal, 1993
Diplom in Biologie, 1996

(Mai 2020)

ISI peer-reviewed Articles

Lundhagen, A., Schmitt, T., Wahlberg, N., Sarvarova, L., Konvička, M., Ryrholm, N. & Kanuch, P. (2020) Wing morphology of the butterfly Coenonympha arcania in Europe: traces of both historical isolation in glacial refugia and current adaptation. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research: in press. DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12360

Habel, J.C., Gossner, M.M. & Schmitt, T. (2020) What makes a species a priority for nature conservation? — Animal Conservation 23: 28–35.

Habel, J.C., Ulrich, U. & Schmitt, T. (2020) Butterflies in corridors: quality matters for specialists. — Insect Conservation and Diversity 13: 91–98.

Habel, J.C., Trusch, R., Schmitt, T., Ochse, M. & Ulrich, W. (2019) Long-term large-scale decline in relative abundances of butterfly and burnet moth species across south-western Germany. — Scientific Reports 9: 14921.

Habel, J.C., Samways, M. & Schmitt, T. (2019) Mitigating the precipitous decline of terrestrial European insects: Requirements for a new strategy. — Biodiversity and Conservation 28: 1343–1360.

Habel, J.C., Biburger, N., Seibold, S., Ulrich, W. & Schmitt, T. (2019) Agricultural intensification drives butterfly decline. — Insect Conservation and Diversity 12: 289–295.

Habel, J.C., Segerer, A., Ulrich, W. & Schmitt, T. (2019) Succession matters: Community shifts in moths over three decades increases multifunctionality in intermediate successional stages. — Scientific Reports 9: 5586.

Ehl, S., Holzhauer, S.I.J., Ryrholm, N. & Schmitt, T. (2019) Phenology, mobility, and behaviour of the arcto-alpine species Boloria napaea in its arctic habitat. — Scientific Reports 9: 3912.

Ehl, S., Böhm, N., Wörner, M., Rakosy, L. & Schmitt, T. (2019) Dispersal and adaptation strategies of the high mountain butterfly Boloria pales in the Romanian Carpathians. — Frontiers in Zoology 16: 1.

Bartonova, A., Konvicka, M., Korb, S., Kramp, K., Schmitt, T. & Faltynek Fric, Z. (2018) Range dynamics of Palaearctic steppe species under glacial cycles: the phylogeography of Proterebia afra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125: 867–884.

Drag, L., Hauck, D., Rican, O., Schmitt, T., Shovkoon, D.F., Godunko, R.J., Curletti, G. & Cizek, L. (2018) Phylogeography of the endangered saproxylic beetle Rosalia longicorn, Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), corresponds with its main host, the European beech (Fagus sylvatica, Fagaceae). — Journal of Biogeography 45: 2631–2644. cover paper

Habel, J.C., Seibold, S., Ulrich, W. & Schmitt, T. (2018) Seasonality overrides differences in butterfly species composition between natural and anthropogenic forest habitats. — Animal Conservation 21: 405-413.

Ehl, S., Hostert, K., Korsch, J., Gros, P. & Schmitt, T. (2018) Sexual dimorphism in the alpine butterflies Boloria pales and Boloria napaea: Differences in movement and foraging behaviour (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). — Insect Science 25: 1089–1101. cover paper

Kramp, K., Schmitt, T., Lang, P., Jeschke, M., Schäfer, P., Kulanek, D., Zhang, X., Yu, R. & Thomas, F.M. (2018) Clones or no clones: genetic structure of riparian Populus euphratica forests in Central Asia. — Journal of Arid Land 10: 750-766.

Rangel López, J.Á., Husemann, M., Schmitt, T., Kramp, K. & Habel, J.C. (2018) Mountain barriers and trans-Saharan connections shape genetic structures of Pimelia darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 124: 547-556.

Hochkirch, A., Beninde, J., Fischer, M., Krahner, A., Lindemann, C., Matenaar, D., Rohde, K., Wagner, N., Wesch, C., Wirtz, S., Zink, A., Lötters, S., Schmitt, T., Proelss, A. & Veith, M. (2018) License to Kill? – Disease eradication programs may not be in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity. — Conservation Letters 11: e12470.

Ehl, S., Dalstein, V., Tull, F., Gros, P. & Schmitt, T. (2018) Specialised or opportunistic – How does the high mountain endemic butterfly Erebia nivalis survive in its extreme habitats? — Insect Science 25: 161–171. cover paper

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2018) Vanishing of the common species: Empty habitats and the role of genetic diversity. — Biological Conservation 218: 211–216.

Ehl, S., Ebertshäuser, M., Gros, P. & Schmitt, T. (2017) Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high mountain environments. — Acta Oecologica 85: 53–61.

Vitali, F. & Schmitt, T. (2017) Ecological patterns strongly impact the biogeography of western Palaearctic longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycoidea). — Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 17: 163–180.

Habel, J.C., Vila, R., Voda, R., Husemann, M., Schmitt, T. & Dapporto, L. (2017) Differentiation in the marbled white butterfly species complex driven by multiple evolutionary forces. — Journal of Biogeography 44: 433–445.

Kühne, G., Kosuch, J., Hochkirch, A. & Schmitt, T. (2017) Extra-Mediterranean glacial refugia in a Mediterranean faunal element: the phylogeography of the chalk-hill blue Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). — Scientific Reports 7: 43533.

Habel, J.C., Lens, L., Eggermont, H., Githiru, M., Mulwa, R.K., Suleiman Shauri, H., Lewinsohn, T.M., Weisser, W.W. & Schmitt, T. (2017) More topics from the tropics: additional thoughts to Mammides et al. — Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 237–241.

Kramp, K., Cizek, O., Madeira, P.M., Ramos, A.A., Konvicka, M., Castilho, R. & Schmitt, T. (2016) Genetic implications of the phylogeographical patterns in the conservation of the boreal wetland butterfly Colias palaeno (Pieridae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119: 1068–1081.

Habel, J.C., Augenstein, B., Schmitt, T. & Ulrich, W. (2016) Managing towards extinction: diverging developments of plant and ground beetle assemblages following restoration of calcareous grasslands. — Basic and Applied Ecology 17: 668–677.

Schmitt, T., Louy, D., Zimmermann, E. & Habel, J.C. (2016) Species radiation in the Alps: Multiple range shifts caused diversification in Ringlet butterflies in the European high mountains. — Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 16: 791–808.

Habel, J.C., Segerer, A., Ulrich, W., Torchyk, O., Weisser, W.W. & Schmitt, T. (2016) Butterfly community shifts over two centuries. — Conservation Biology 30: 754–762.

Habel, J.C., Hillen, J., Schmitt, T. & Fischer, C. (2016) Restricted movements and high site fidelity in three East African cloud-forest birds. — Journal of Tropical Ecology 32: 83–87.

Wakil, W. & Schmitt, T. (2015): Field trials on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana, diatomaceous earth and Imidacloprid for the protection of wheat grains from four major stored grain insect pests. — Journal of Stored Products Research 64: 160-167.

Junker, M., Zimmermann, M., Ramos, A.A., Gros, P., Konvička, M., Nève, G., Rákosy, L., Tammaru, T., Castilho, R. & Schmitt, T. (2015) Three in one – multiple faunal elements within an endangered European butterfly species. — PLoS One 10: e0142282.

Lechner, R., Kühn, R., Melzer, A., Schmitt, T. & Habel, J.C. (2015) Ecological separation versus geographic isolation: population genetics of the Water-lily leaf beetle Galerucella nymphaeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 116: 423-431.

Filz, K.J. & Schmitt, T. (2015) Niche overlap and host specificity in parasitic Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) as a measure for potential extinction risks under climate change. — Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 15: 555-565.

Habel, J.C., Zachos, F.E., Dapporto, L., Rödder, D., Radespiel, U., Tellier, A. & Schmitt, T. (2015) Population genetics revisited – towards a multidisciplinary research field. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 115: 1-12.

Besold, J. & Schmitt, T. (2015) More northern than ever thought: Refugia of the Woodland Ringlet butterfly Erebia medusa (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in Northern Central Europe. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 53: 67-75.

Weyer, J., Jorgensen, D, Schmitt, T., Maxwell, T.J & Anderson, C.D. (2014) Lack of detectable genetic differentiation between den populations of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in a fragmented landscape. — Canadian Journal of Zoology 92: 837-846.

Ashoff, M. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Are different allozyme genotypes of the butterfly Polyommatus coridon adapted to resist cold and heat shocks? — Annales Zoologici Fennici 51: 413-422.

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Towards more evidence-based nature conservation: Additional thoughts to Müller & Opgenoorth. The science-practitioners gap in nature conservation. — Basic and Applied Ecology 15: 379-384.

Schmitt, T., Habel, J.C., Rödder, D. & Louy, D. (2014) Effects of recent and past climatic shifts on the genetic structure of the high mountain Yellow-spotted ringlet butterfly Erebia manto (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae): a conservation problem. — Global Change Biology 20: 2045-2061.

Pennekamp, F., Pereira, P. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Habitat requirements and dispersal ability of the Spanish Fritillary (Euphydryas desfontainii) in southern Portugal: evidence-based conservation suggestions for an endangered taxon. — Journal of Insect Conservation 18: 497-508.

Konvicka, M., Mihali, C.V., Rakosy, L., Benes, J., Schmitt, T. (2014) Survival of cold-adapted species in isolated mountains: the population genetics of the Sudeten ringlet, Erebia sudetica sudetica, in the Jeseník Mts., Czech Republic. — Journal of Insect Conservation 18: 153-161.

Louy, D., Habel, J.C., Abadjev, S., Rakosy, L., Varga, Z., Rödder, D. & Schmitt T. (2014) Molecules and models indicate diverging evolutionary effects from parallel altitudinal range shifts in two mountain Ringlet butterflies. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 112: 569-583.

Heiser, M., Dapporto, L. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Coupling impoverishment analyses and partitioning of beta diversity allows a comprehensive description of Odonata biogeography in the Western Mediterranean. — Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 14: 203-214.

Louy, D., Habel, J.C., Ulrich, W. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Out of the Alps: The biogeography of a disjunctly distributed mountain butterfly, the Almond eyed ringlet Erebia alberganus (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae). — Journal of Heredity 105: 28-38.

Husemann, M., Schmitt, T., Zachos, F.E., Ulrich, W. & Habel, J.C. (2014) Palaearctic biogeography revisited: Evidence for the existence of a North African refugium for western Palaearctic biota. — Journal of Biogeography 41: 81-94.

Hochkirch, A., Schmitt, T., Beninde, J., Hiery, M., Kinitz, T., Kirschey, J., Matenaar, D., Rohde, K., Stoefen, A., Wagner, N., Zink, A., Lötters, S., Veith, M., Proelss, A. (2013) How much biodiversity does Natura 2000 cover? — Conservation Letters 6: 470-471.

Hochkirch, A., Schmitt, T., Beninde, J., Hiery, M., Kinitz, T., Kirschey, J., Matenaar, D., Rohde, K., Stoefen, A., Wagner, N., Zink, A., Lötters, S., Veith, M., Proelss, A. (2013) Europe needs a new vision for a Natura 2020 network. — Conservation Letters 6: 462-467.

Weyer, J. & Schmitt, T. (2013) Knowing the way home: strong philopatry of a highly mobile insect species, Brenthis ino. — Journal of Insect Conservation 17: 1197-1208.

Heiser, M. & Schmitt, T. (2013) Tracking the boundary between the Palaearctic and the Oriental region: New insights from dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). — Journal of Biogeography 40: 2047-2058.

Habel, J.C., Rödder, D. Lens, L. & Schmitt, T. (2013) The genetic signature of ecologically different grassland lepidopterans. — Biodiversity and Converation 22: 2401-2411.

Filz, K.J., Engler, J.O., Stoffels, J., Weitzel, M., Schmitt, T. (2013) Missing the target? A critical view on butterfly conservation efforts on calcareous grasslands in south-western Germany. — Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 2223-2241.

Louy, D., Habel, J.C., Abadjiev, S. & Schmitt, T. (2013) Genetic legacy from past panmixia: High genetic variability and low differentiation in disjunct populations of the Eastern Large Heath butterfly. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 281-290.

Filz, K.J., Wiemers, M., Herrig, A., Weitzel, M. & Schmitt, T. (2013) A question of adaptability – Climate and habitat change lower trait diversity in butterfly communities in south-western Germany. — European Journal of Entomology 110: 633-642.

Filz, K.J., Schmitt, T. & Engler, J.O. (2013) How fine is fine-scale? Questioning the use of fine-scale bioclimatic data in species distribution models used for forecasting abundance patterns in butterflies. — European Journal of Entomology 110: 311-317.

Dieker, P., Drees, C., Schmitt, T., Assmann, T. (2013) Low genetic diversity of a high mountain burnet moth species in the Pyrenees. — Conservation Genetics 14: 231-236.

Habel, J.C., Husemann, M., Schmitt, T., Dapporto, L., Rödder, D. & Vandewoestijne, S. (2013) A forest butterfly in Sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter. — Journal of Heredity 104: 234-247.

Pennekamp, F., Monteiro, E. & Schmitt, T. (2013) The larval ecology of the butterfly Euphydryas desfontainii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in SW-Portugal: food plant quantity and quality as main predictors of habitat quality. — Journal of Insect Conservation 17: 195-206.

Rákosy, L., Heiser, M., Manci, C.-O. & Schmitt, T. (2013) Strong divergences in regional distributions in Romania: recent ecological constraints in dragonflies (Odonata) versus ancient biogeographical patterns in butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). — Insect Conservation and Diversity 6: 145-154.

De Keyser, R., Shreeve, T.G., Breuker, C.J., Hails, R.S. & Schmitt, T. (2012) Polyommatus icarus butterflies in the British Isles: evidence for a bottleneck. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107: 123-136.

Schmitt, T. & Varga, Z. (2012) Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception? — Frontiers in Zoology 9: 22.

Molecular Ecology Resource Primer Development Consortium, Abelló, P., Weiming, A.I., Altmann, C., Bernardi, G., Bonato, O., Burchhardt, K.M., Chen, X., Chen, Z., Cizkova, D., Clouet, C., Cubeta, M.A., Garcia-Merchan, V.H., Gauthier, N., Gibson, S., Halacka, K., Hamdi, F., Hankeln, T., Hochkirch, A., Hrbek, T., Jackson, A.M., Lin, C., Lin, S.-M., Macpherson, E., Macrander, J., Maresova, E., Mendel, J., Nowak, M., Orti, G., Palero, F., Papousek, I., Pascual, M., Schmitt, T., Semmens, B.X., Streito, J.-C., Tian, E.-W., Tseng, S.-P., Veith, M., Svetesnik, L., Wang, H.-Y., Weyer, J., Willis, S., Yu, H. & Zhou, Z. (2012) Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2012 – 31 May 2012. — Molecular Ecology Resources 12: 972-974.

Habel, J.C., Engler, J.O., Rödder, D. & Schmitt, T. (2012) Contrasting genetic and morphologic responses on recent population decline in two burnet moths (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae). — Conservation Genetics 13: 1293-1304.

Habel, J.C., Engler, J.O., Rödder, D. & Schmitt, T. (2012) Landscape genetics of a recent population extirpation in a burnet moth species. — Conservation Genetics 13: 247-255.

Alvarez, N., Manel, S., Schmitt, T. & the IntraBioDiv Consortium (2012) Contrasting diffusion of Quaternary gene pools across Europe: The case of the arctic–alpine Gentiana nivalis L. (Gentianaceae). — Flora 207: 408-413.

Huck, S., Büdel, B., Schmitt, T. (2012) Ice-age isolation, postglacial hybridization and recent population bottlenecks shape the genetic structure of Meum athamanticum in Central Europe. — Flora 207: 399-407.

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2012) The burden of genetic diversity. — Biological Conservation 147: 270-274.

Schmitt, T. & Zimmermann, M. (2012) To hybridize or not to hybridize: what separates two genetic lineages of the Chalk-hill Blue Polyommatus coridon (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) along their secondary contact zone throughout eastern Central Europe? — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 50: 106-115.

Husemann, M., Schmitt, T., Stathi, I. & Habel, J.C. (2012) Evolution and radiation in the scorpion Buthus elmoutaouakili Lourenço & Qi, 2006 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) at the foothills of the Atlas Mountains (North Africa). — Journal of Heredity 103: 221-229.

Habel, J.C., Husemann, M., Schmitt, T., Zachos, F.E., Honnen, A.-C., Petersen, B., Parmakelis, A. & Stathi, I. (2012) Microallopatry caused strong diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa). — PLoS ONE 7: e29403.

Habel, J.C., Husemann, M., Rödder, D. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Biogeographical dynamics of the Spanish Marbled White Melanargia ines (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) in the western Mediterranean: does the Atlanto-Mediterranean refuge exist? — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104: 828-837.

Bernard, R., Heiser, M., Hochkirch, A. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Genetic homogeneity of the Sedgling Nehalennia speciosa (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) indicates a single Würm glacial refugium and trans-Palaearctic postglacial expansion. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 292-297.

Wagner, N., Pellet, J., Lötters, S., Schmidt, B.R. & Schmitt, T. (2011) The superpopulation approach for estimating the population size of ‚prolonged‘ breeding amphibians: Examples from Europe. — Amphibia-Reptilia 32: 323-332.

Habel, J.C., Lens, L., Rödder, D. & Schmitt, T. (2011) From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. — BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 215.

Dapporto, L., Habel, J.C., Dennis, R.L.H. & Schmitt, T. (2011) The biogeography of the western Mediterranean: elucidating contradictory distribution patterns of differentiation in Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 571-577.

Dapporto, L., Schmitt, T., Vila, R., Scalercio, S., Biermann, H., Dinca, V., Gayubo, S.F., González, J.A., Lo Cascio, P., Dennis, R.L.H. (2011) Phylogenetic island disequilibrium: evidence for ongoing long-term population dynamics in two Mediterranean butterflies. — Journal of Biogeography 38: 854-867.

Rákosy, L. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Are butterflies and moths suitable ecological indicator systems for restoration measures of semi-natural calcareous grassland habitats? — Ecological Indicators 11: 1040-1045.

Vila, M., Marí-Mena, N., Guerrero, A. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Some butterflies do not care much about topography: a single genetic lineage of Erebia euryale (Nymphalidae) along the northern Iberian mountains. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 119-132.

Sinama, M., Dubut, V., Costedoat, C., Gilles, A., Junker, M., Malausa, T., Martin, J.-F., Nève, G., Pech, N., Schmitt, T., Zimmermann, M. & Meglécz, E. (2011) Challenge of microsatellite development in Lepidoptera: Euphydryas aurinia (Nymphalidae) as a case study. — European Journal of Entomology 108: 261-266.

Habel, J.C., Finger, A., Schmitt, T. & Nève, G. (2011) Survival of the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle in a fragmented environment: Genetic analyses over 15 years. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 25-31.

Habel, J.C., Rödder, D., Schmitt, T. & Nève, G. (2011) Global warming will affect genetic diversity and uniqueness of Lycaena helle populations. — Global Change Biology 17: 194-205.

Junker, M., Wagner, S., Gros, P. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Changing demography and dispersal behaviour: ecological adaptation in an alpine butterfly. — Oecologia 164: 971-980.

Habel, J.C., Ivinskis, P. & Schmitt, T. (2010) On the limit of altitudinal range shifts – population genetics of relict butterfly populations. — Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 56: 383-393.

Michl, T., Huck, S., Schmitt, T., Liebrich, A., Haase, P. & Büdel, B. (2010) The molecular population structure of the tall-forb Cicerbita alpina (Asteraceae) supports the idea of cryptic glacial refugia in central Europe. — Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 164: 142-154.

Habel, J.C., Junker, M. & Schmitt, T. (2010) High dispersal ability and low genetic differentiation in the widespread butterfly species Melanargia galathea. — Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 467-478.

Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T., Meyer, M., Finger, A., Rödder, D., Assmann, T. & Zachos, F. (2010) Biogeography meets conservation: the genetic structure of the endangered lycaenid butterfly Lycaena helle (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101: 155-168.

Ujvárosi, L., Bálint, M., Schmitt, T., Mészáros, N., Ujvárosi, T. & Popescu, O. (2010) Divergence and speciation in the Carpathians area: patterns of morphological and genetic diversity of the crane fly Pedicia occulta (Diptera:Pediciidae). — Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 1075-1088.

Kühne, G. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Genotype shifts along one generation of the blue butterfly Polyommatus coridon without changes in allele frequencies. — Annales Zoologici Fennici 47: 278-286.

Junker, M. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Demography, dispersal and movement pattern of Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at the Iberian Peninsula: an alarming example in an increasingly fragmented landscape? — Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 237-246.

Bernard, R. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Genetic poverty of an extremely specialized wetland species, Nehalennia speciosa: implications for conservation (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). — Bulletin of Entomological Research 100: 405-413.

Schmitt, T. & Besold, J. (2010) Upslope movements and large scale expansions: the taxonomy and biogeography of the Coenonympha arcania – C. darwiniana – C. gardetta butterfly species complex. — Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 890-904.

Kadlec, T., Vrba, P., Kepka, P., Schmitt, T. & Konvicka, M. (2010) Tracking the decline of the once-common butterfly: delayed oviposition, demography and population genetics in the hermit Chazara briseis. — Animal Conservation 13: 172-183.

Habel, J.C., Rödder, D., Stefano, S., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Strong genetic cohesiveness between Italy and North Africa in four butterfly species. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99: 818-830.

Hammouti, N., Schmitt, T., Seitz, A., Kosuch, J. & Veith, M. (2010) Combining mitochondrial and nuclear evidences: a refined evolutionary history of Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in Central Europe based on the CO1 gene. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 48: 115-125.

Heiser, M. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Do different dispersal capacities influence the biogeography of the western Palearctic dragonflies (Odonata)? — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99: 177-195.

Habel, J.C., Zachos, F.E., Finger, A., Meyer, M., Louy, D., Assmann, T. & Schmitt, T. (2009) Unprecedented long-term genetic monomorphism in an endangered relict butterfly species. — Conservation Genetics 10: 1659-1665.

Habel, J.C., Dieker, P. & Schmitt, T. (2009) Biogeographical connections between the Maghreb and the Mediterranean peninsulas of southern Europe. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98: 693-703.

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2009) The genetic consequences of different dispersal behaviours in Lycaenid butterfly species. — Bulletin of Entomological Research 99: 513-523.

Karl, I., Schmitt, T. & Fischer, K. (2009) Genetic differentiation between alpine and lowland populations of a butterfly is related to PGI enzyme genotype. — Ecography 32: 488-496.

Finger, A., Schmitt, T., Zachos, F.E., Meyer, M., Assmann, T. & Habel, J.C. (2009) The genetic status of the violet copper Lycaena helle – a relict of the cold past in times of global warming. — Ecography 32: 382-390.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (2009) The genetic consequence of differing ecological demands of a generalist and a specialist butterfly species. — Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 1895-1908.

Schmitt, T. (2009) Biogeographical and evolutionary importance of the European high mountain systems. — Frontiers in Zoology 6: 9.

Kramp, K., Huck, S., Niketić, M., Tomović, G. & Schmitt, T. (2009) Multiple glacial refugia and complex postglacial range shifts of the obligatory woodland plant Polygonatum verticillatum (Convallariaceae). — Plant Biology 11: 392-404.

Lermen, D., Blömeke, B., Browne, R., Clarke, A., Dyce, P., Fixemer, T., Fuhr, G., Holt, W.V., Jewgenow, K., Lloyd, R.E., Lötters, S., Paulus, M., McGregor Reid, G., Rapoport, D.H., Rawson, D., Ringleb, J., Ryder, O.A., Spörl, G., Schmitt, T., Veith, M. & Müller, P. (2009) Cryobanking of viable biomaterials: Necessities of new strategies for conservation purposes. — Molecular Ecology 18: 1030-1033.

Bálint, M., Barnard, P.C., Schmitt, T., Ujvárosi, L. & Popescu, O. (2008) Differentiation and speciation in mountain streams: a case study in the caddisfly Rhyacophila aquitanica (Trichoptera). — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 46: 340-345.

Besold, J., Schmitt, T., Tammaru, T. & Cassel-Lundhagen, A. (2008) Strong genetic impoverishment from the centre of distribution in southern Europe to peripheral Baltic and isolated Scandinavian populations of the pearly heath butterfly. — Journal of Biogeography 35: 2090-2101.

Besold, J., Huck, S. & Schmitt, T. (2008) Allozyme polymorphisms in the small heath Coenonympha pamphilus: recent ecological selection or old biogeographical signal? — Annales Zoologici Fennici 45: 217–228.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M., El Mousadik, A. & Schmitt, T. (2008) Africa goes Europa: The complete phylogeography of the marbled white butterfly species complex Melanargia galathea / lachesis (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). — Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 8: 121-129.

Karl, I., Schmitt, T. & Fischer, K. (2008) Phosphoglucose isomerase genotype affects life-history traits and cold stress resistance in a Copper butterfly. — Functional Ecology 22: 887-894.

Schmitt, T. & Haubrich, K. (2008) The genetic structure of the mountain forest butterfly Erebia euryale unravels the late Pleistocene and postglacial history of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe. — Molecular Ecology 17: 2194–2207.

Schmitt, T., Augenstein, B. & Finger, A. (2008) The influence of changes in viticulture management on the butterfly (Lepidoptera) diversity in a wine growing region of southwestern Germany. — European Journal of Entomology 105: 249-255.

Habel, J.C., Finger, A., Meyer, M., Schmitt, T. & Assmann, T. (2008) Polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). — European Journal of Entomology 105: 361–362.

Varga, Z.S. & Schmitt, T. (2008) Types of oreal and oreotundral disjunction in the western Palearctic. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 415-430.

Schmitt, T. (2007) Molecular Biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends. — Frontiers in Zoology 4: 11. highly accessed

Haubrich, K. & Schmitt, T. (2007) Cryptic differentiation in alpine-endemic, high-altitude butterflies reveals down-slope glacial refugia. — Molecular Ecology 16: 3643-3658.

Schmitt, T. & Müller, P. (2007) Limited hybridization along a large contact zone between two genetic lineages of the butterfly Erebia medusa (Satyrinae, Lepidoptera) in Central Europe. — Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 45: 39-46.

Schmitt, T., Rákosy, L., Abadjiev, S. & Müller, P. (2007) Multiple differentiation centres of a non-Mediterranean butterfly species in south-eastern Europe. — Journal of Biogeography 34: 939-950.

Louy, D., Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T., Assmann, T., Meyer, M. & Müller, P. (2007) Strongly diverging population genetic patterns of three skipper species: the role of habitat fragmentation and dispersal ability. — Conservation Genetics 8: 671-681.

Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T., Härdtle, W., Lütkepohl, M. & Assmann, T. (2007) Dynamics in a butterfly–plant–ant system: influence of habitat characteristics on turnover rates of the endangered lycaenid Maculinea alcon. — Ecological Entomology 32: 536-543.

Schmitt, T. & Rákosy, L. (2007) Changes of traditional agrarian landscapes and their conservation implications: a case study of butterflies in Romania. — Diversity and Distributions 13: 855-862.

Schmitt, T., Hewitt, G.M. & Müller, P. (2006) Disjunct distributions during glacial and interglacial periods in mountain butterflies: Erebia epiphron as an example. — Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 108-113.

Wenzel, M., Schmitt, T., Weitzel, M. & Seitz, A. (2006) The severe decline of butterflies on western German calcareous grasslands during the last 30 years: A conservation problem. — Biological Conservation 128: 542-552.

Schmitt, T., Habel, J.C., Zimmermann, M. & Müller, P. (2006) Genetic differentiation of the marbled white butterfly, Melanargia galathea, accounts for glacial distribution patterns and postglacial range expansion in southeastern Europe. — Molecular Ecology 15: 1889-1901.

Schmitt, T., Habel, J.C., Besold, J., Becker, T., Johnen, L., Knolle, M., Rzepecki, A., Schultze, J. & Zapp, A. (2006) The Chalk-hill Blue Polyommatus coridon (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) in a highly fragmented landscape: How sedentary is a sedentary butterfly? — Journal of Insect Conservation 10: 311-316.

Schmitt, T., Cizek, O. & Konvicka, M. (2005) Genetics of a butterfly relocation: large, small and introduced populations of the mountain endemic Erebia epiphron silesiana. — Biological Conservation 123: 11-18.

Schmitt, T., Röber, S. & Seitz, A. (2005) Is the last glaciation the only relevant event for the present genetic population structure of the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)? — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 85: 419-431.

Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T. & Müller, P. (2005) The fourth paradigm pattern of post-glacial range expansion of European terrestrial species: the phylogeography of the Marbled White butterfly (Satyrinae, Lepidoptera). — Journal of Biogeography 32: 1489-1497.

Schmitt, T., Varga, Z. & Seitz, A. (2005) Are Polyommatus hispana and Polyommatus slovacus bivoltine Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)? The discriminatory value of genetics in taxonomy. — Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5: 297-307.

Schmitt, T. & Hewitt, G.M. (2004) The genetic pattern of population threat and loss: a case study of butterflies. — Molecular Ecology 13: 21-31.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2004) Low diversity but high differentiation: the population genetics of Aglaope infausta (Zygaenidae: Lepidoptera). — Journal of Biogeography 31: 137-144.

Krauss, J., Schmitt, T., Seitz, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I. & Tscharntke, T. (2004) Effects of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of the monophagous butterfly Polyommatus coridon along its northern range margin. — Molecular Ecology 13: 311-320.

Schmitt, T. & Hewitt, G.M. (2004) Molecular biogeography of the arctic-alpine disjunct burnet moth species Zygaena exulans (Zygaenidae, Lepidoptera) in the Pyrenees and Alps. — Journal of Biogeography 31: 885-893.

Schmitt, T. & Krauss, J. (2004) Reconstruction of the colonization route from glacial refugium to the northern distribution range of the European butterfly Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). — Diversity and Distributions 10: 271-274.

Schmitt, T., Gießl, A. & Seitz, A. (2003) Did Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) have distinct glacial refugia in southern Europe? Evidence from population genetics. — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80: 529-538.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Influence of forest and grassland management on the diversity and conservation of butterflies and burnet moths (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea, Hesperiidae, Zygaenidae). — Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 26.2: 51-67.

Schmitt, T., Gießl, A. & Seitz, A. (2002) Postglacial colonisation of western Central Europe by Polyommatus coridon (Poda 1761) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence from population genetics. — Heredity 88: 26-34.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2002) Influence of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): implications for conservation. — Biological Conservation 107: 291-297.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2002) Postglacial distribution area expansion of Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from its Ponto-Mediterranean glacial refugium. — Heredity 89: 20-26.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2001) Intraspecific allozymatic differentiation reveals the glacial refugia and the postglacial expansions of European Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). — Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 429-458.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2001) Allozyme variation in Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): identification of ice-age refugia and reconstruction of post-glacial expansion. — Journal of Biogeography 28: 1129-1136.

Schmitt, T., Varga, Z. & Seitz, A. (2000) Forests as dispersal barriers for Erebia medusa (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera). — Basic and Applied Ecology 1: 53-59.


other peer-reviewed Articles

Schmitt, T. & Ehl, S. (2020) Some like it cold: Wie Permutterfalter der Gattung Boloria in ihren extremen Gebirgslebensräumen überleben. — Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 22.

Schmitt, T., Bartonova, A., Konvicka, M., Korb, S., Kramp, K. & Fric, Z.F. (2020) Was ein Schmetterling uns über die Dynamik der Steppen des westlichen Eurasiens erzählt: Die Phylogeographie von Proterebia afra (Satyrinae) — Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 22.

Schmitt, T. (2019) Insektenvielfalt und ihre Funktion in Ökosystemen. — Natur und Landschaft 94: 222-229.

Krahner, A., Dathe, H.H. & Schmitt, T. (2018) Wildbienen (Hymenoptera, Aculeata: Apiformes) des Mittleren Moseltals: Die Weinbausteillagen im Klotten-Treiser Moseltal. — Contributions to Entomology 68: 107-131.

Habel, J.C., Teucher, M., Schmitt, T. & Ulrich, W. (2018) Documenting the chronology of declining ecosystem health along East African rivers. — Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4: 34–43.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Biogeographie – einmal um die Welt. — Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 20: 87-100.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Biology and biogeography of the chalk-hill blue Polyommatus coridon – insect of the year 2015 for Germany, Austria and Switzerland. — Nota lepidopterologica 38: 107-126.

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Flügelgeschichten – Was Schmetterlingsflügel über die Evolution und den Zustand von Populationen erzählen. — Entomologie heute 26: 123-137.

Heiser, M. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Bekannte Zentren und neue Grenzen: Die Biogeographie der Libellen Eurasiens. — Entomologie heute 26: 87-109.

Schmitt, T. (2014) Zweck von Naturschutzgebieten. — Entomologie heute 26: 169-170.

Beierkuhnlein, C., Jentsch, A., Hahn, I. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Natürliche Laboratorien der Biogeographie – Inseln: Ursprung der Vielfalt. — Biologie in unserer Zeit 41: 384-394.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Der biologische Wert peripherer Populationen am Beispiel der Tagfalterarten Lycaena helle und Parnassius apollo. — Entomologie heute 23: 93-102.

Schmitt, T. (2011) Schmetterlinge – wer kommt, wer geht? Einwanderungsrouten nach Mitteleuropa. — Biologie in unserer Zeit 41: 324-332.

Schmitt, T. (2009) Mediterran, kontinental und arkto-alpin: Die drei biogeographischen Grundmuster Europas und des Mittelmeerraumes am Beispiel von Schmetterlingen. — Entomologie heute 21: 3-19.

Schmitt, T. (2009) Gene als Berichterstatter der Evolution: Die molekulare Biogeografie der europäischen Schmetterlinge. — Praxis der Naturwissenschaften – Biologie in der Schule 58/3: 30-34.

Veith, M. & Schmitt, T. (2008) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Naturschutzgenetik. — Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 15: 119-138.

Schmitt, T. (2007) Gene berichten über die Vergangenheit: Die molekulare Biogeographie europäischer Tagfalterarten. — Entomologica Romanica 12: 31-39.

Schmitt, T. (2006) Die Bedeutung der molekularen Biogeographie im Naturschutz. — Entomologie heute 18: 133-141.

Schmitt, T. (2005) Molekulare Biogeographie des Gemeinen Bläulings Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). — Entomologie heute 17: 195-204.

Schmitt, T., Lambracht, E., Scheelke, K., Tietze, D.T. & Seitz, A. (2002) Wie viele Tagfalterarten gibt es in einem Habitat? Eine ökologische Fallstudie in Norditalien (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). — Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 23: 1-6.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2001) Intraspecific structuring of Polyommatus coridon (Lycaenidae). — Nota lepidopterologica 24: 53-63.

Schmitt, T. (2000) Anmerkungen zur Biologie von Saturnia pavonia (Linnaeus, 1761) im südwestlichen Hunsrück (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachrichten des entomolo­gischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 21: 173-176.



Schmitt, T. (2020) Molekulare Biogeographie: Gene in Raum und Zeit. UTB. — Haupt Verlag, Bern, 504 pp.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) (2014) Jewels in the mist – A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia, 235 pp.

Schmitt, T. (1999) Phylogeographie europäischer Tagfalter basierend auf populations­genetischen Analysen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Polyommatus coridon und Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) sowie Erebia medusa und Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). — Dissertation, Universität Mainz, 200 pp.


Congress volumes

Schmitt, T., Blank, S.M., Köhler, A., Kramp, K. & Weyer, J. (eds.) (2015) Entomology congress 02.–05.03.2015 Frankfurt/Main. Program and Abstracts. Frankfurt am Main, 120 pp.


Book Chapters (mostly peer-reviewed*)

Türkay, M., Fritz, U., Schmitt, T., Xylander, W., Ernst, R., Kallweit, U., Klass, K.-D., Nuss, M., Päckert, M., Schmidt, C., Reimann, A., Schniebs, K., Stefen, C., Weck-Heimann, A. & Zarske, A. (2018) Frankfurt, Dresden, Görlitz, Müncheberg: Senckenberg: Its zoological collections and their history. — In Beck, L.A. (ed.) Zoological collections of Germany, Natural history collections. Springer, Heidelberg: 317–371.

Schmitt, T. & Habel, J.C. (2017) Ausgeflattert: Warum haben wir ein Schmetterlingssterben? — In: Vössing, A. (ed.) Nationalpark-Jahrbuch Unteres Odertal 2017. Nationalparkstiftung Unteres Odertal, Schloss Criewen: 34–45.

*Schmitt, T. (2017) Molecular biogeography of the high mountain systems of Europe: an overview. — In: Catalan, J., Ninot, J.M. & Aniz, M.M. (eds) High Mountain Conservation in a Changing World. Springer, Heidelberg: 63–74.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Die Insektenfauna. — In: Blahy, B. & Flade, M. (eds.) Grumsin – Weltnaturerbe im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin. Natur+Text, Rangsdorf: 109–110.

*Schmitt, T. (2016) Molecular biogeography of the high mountain systems of Europe: an overview. — In: Catalan, J., Ninot, J. & Aniz, M. (eds) High Mountain Conservation in a Changing World. Springer, Heidelberg: in press.

Habel, J.C. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Why protecting relict populations? — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) Jewels in the mist – A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 231-235.

*Habel, J.C., Mattern, S., Meyer, M., Schmitt, T. (2014) Morphologic variability and signals of environmental stress: Wing-shape analyses in the Violet Copper Lycaena helle. — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 141-159.

*Habel, J.C., Finger, A., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Isolated and unique: The conservation value of extant populations of Lycaena helle at the species’ western distribution edge. — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) Jewels in the mist – A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 127-136.

*Habel, J.C., Meyer, M., Schmitt, T., Husemann, M., Varga, Z. (2014) The molecular biogeography of the Violet Copper Lycaena helle. — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) Jewels in the mist – A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 111-124.

*Schmitt, T. & Habel, J.C. (2014) Biogeography: From the analysis of distributions to the distribution of genetic variants. — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 107-109.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (2014) Editorial. — In: Habel, J.C., Meyer, M. & Schmitt, T. (eds) A synopsis on the highly endangered butterfly species Violet Copper, Lycaena helle. Pensoft, Sofia: 1-2.

Schmitt, T. (2011) Molecular biogeography of terrestrial insects in Europe: case studies in butterflies. — In: Ujvárosi, L. & Marko, B. (eds.) The Carpathians as speciation centres and barriers. From case studies to general patterns. Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca: 51-82.

*Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T. & Assmann, T. (2010) Relict species: Some concluding remarks. — In: Habel, J.C. & Assmann, T. (eds.) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer, Heidelberg: 441-442.

*Habel, J.C., Assmann, T., Schmitt, T. & Avise, J.C. (2010) Relict species research: Some concluding remarks. — In: Habel, J.C. & Assmann, T. (eds.) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer, Heidelberg: 1-5.

*Habel, J.C., Drees, C., Schmitt, T. & Assmann, T. (2010) Refugial areas and postglacial colonizations in the western Palearctic. — In: Habel, J.C. & Assmann, T. (eds.) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer, Heidelberg: 189-197.

*Konvicka, M., Benes, J. & Schmitt, T. (2010) Ecological limits vis-à-vis changing climate: relic Erebia butterflies in insular Sudeten mountains. — In: Habel, J.C. & Assmann, T. (eds.) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer, Heidelberg: 341-355.

*Schmitt, T., Muster, C. & Schönswetter, P. (2010) Are disjunct alpine and arctic-alpine animal and plant species in the western Palearctic really „relics of a cold past“? — In: Habel, J.C. & Assmann, T. (eds.) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer, Heidelberg: 239-252.

Veith, M. & Schmitt, T. (2009) Naturschutzgenetik bei Amphibien: von der Theorie zur Praxis. — In: Hachtel, M., Schüpmann, M., Thiesmeier, K. & Weddeling, K. (eds.) Methoden der Feldherpetologie. — Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie, Supplement 15: 153-184.

*Dennis, R.L.H. & Schmitt, T. (2009) Faunal structures, phylogeography and historical inference. — In: Settele, J., Shreeve, T.G., Konvicka, M. & van Dyck, H. (eds.) Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 250-280.

Schmitt, T. & Varga, Z. (2009) Biogeography of the butterflies and larger moths of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula. — In: Stloukal, E., Hensel, K., Holec, P., Illyová, M., Jandzík, D., Jedlička, L., Joniak, P., Juráni, B., Kocian, Ľ., Košel, V., Krno, I., Kúdela, M., Miklós, P., Mikulíček, P., Obuch, J., Schmitt, T., Stankoviansky, M., Stloukalová, V., Varga, Z.S., Žiak, D. (eds.) Vývoj prírody Slovenska. Faunima, Bratislava: 143-166.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Análises Genéticas: um método importante para a compreensão e protecção dos Lepidópteros. — In: Maravalhas, E. (ed.) As Borboletas de Portugal. — Apollo Books, Stenstrup: 111-120.

Maravalhas, E., Garcia-Pereira, P. & Schmitt, T. (2003) Guia Monográfico Continente. — In: Maravalhas, E. (ed.) As Borboletas de Portugal. — Apollo Books, Stenstrup: 167-324.

Proceedings (partly peer-reviewed*)

Schmitt, T. (2006) Landschaftsstrukturen und molekulare Biogeographie. — Pp 465-472 in: Kulke, E., Monheim, H., Wittmann, P. (eds.) Grenzwerte. — Tagungsbericht und wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 55. Deutscher Geographentag Trier 2005. Berlin, Leipzig, Trier.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Wie ökologische Nischen regionale Verbreitungsmuster beeinflussen: ein Fallbeispiel an Rhopaloceren und Zygaeniden (Lepidoptera) aus Südportugal. — Verhandlungen des Westdeutschen Entomologentag 2001: 167-176.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera). — In: Reemer, M., van Helsdingen, P.J. & Kleukers, R.M.J.C. (eds.) Changes in ranges: invertebrates on the move. — Proceedings of the EIS-Symposium, Leiden, 2-5 September 2001: 69-78.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Eiablageverhalten und Raupenfutterpflanzen von Tagfaltern und Widderchen in Rheinland-Pfalz und im Saarland (Lepidoptera). — Verhandlungen des Westdeutschen Entomologentag 2002: 93-104.

Schmitt, T. (2002) Stirbt der Rundaugen-Mohrenfalter Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) regional aus? Ökologische und populationsgenetische Hinweise. — In: Gerken, B. & M. Görner (eds.) Planung contra Evolution? Über Evolution und Landschaftsentwicklung in Mitteleuropa. — Natur- und Kulturlandschaft 5: 177-184.

Schmitt, T. (2001) Arealgeschichte von Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) im Würm und Postglazial. — Verhandlungen des Westdeutschen Entomologentag 2000: 253-265.

Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (2001) Influence of the ice-age on the genetics and intraspecific differentiation of butterflies. — Proceedings of the International Colloquium of the European Invertebrate Survey (EIS), Macevol Priory, Arboussols (66-France), 30 August 1999 – 4 September 1999: 16-26.

Schmitt, T. (2000) Glaziale Refugien und postglaziale Arealausweitung von Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). — Verhandlungen des Westdeutschen Entomo­logentag 1999: 65-79.

*Schmitt, T. & Seitz, A. (1999) Analyse der genetischen Struktur und des Arealsystems mitteleuropäischer Populationen von Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). — Ver­handlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 29: 381-387. 

not peer-reviewed articles

Gelbrecht, J., Rämisch, F., Reinhardt, R., Richert, A. & Schmitt, T. (2015) Polyommatus coridon (Poda, 1761) – Insekt des Jahres 2015 (Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz): Einwanderungsgeschichte, aktuelle Verbreitung und Gefährdung in Brandenburg und Berlin (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). — Märkische Entomologische Nachrichten: in press.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Wer kommt, wer geht: Einwanderungsrouten in die Großregion Saar-Lor-Lux und Rheinland-Pfalz am Beispiel von Schmetterlingen. — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 40: 49-56.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Der Silbergrüne Bläuling Polyommatus coridon – Anmerkungen zur Biologie und Biogeographie des Insekts des Jahres 2015 (Lepidoptera). — Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte 59: 1-8.

Herrig, A., Schmitt, T., Weitzel, M. & Filz, K.J. (2014) Zusammensetzung und Bestandsentwicklung von Tagfalterzönosen (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) auf Brachflächen im Raum Trier über 40 Jahre. — Mainzer naturwissenschaftliches Archiv 51: 357-392.

Filz, K.J., Jänicke, D., Schmitt, T., Frede, M. & Weitzel, M. (2013) Untersuchungen zur Bestandsentwicklung der Tagfalterzönosen auf Kalkmagerrasen im Saar-Mosel-Gebiet. — Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv 50: 383-397.

Filz, K.J. & Schmitt, T. (2013) Untersuchung der Arealdynamik des Kurzschwänzigen Bläulings (Cupido argiades, Pallas 1771) unter Klimawandelbedingungen mit Artverbreitungsmodellen in Europa (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 38: 215-228.

Rákosy, L., Schmitt, T. & Varga, Z. (2011) Erebia oeme (Hübner, 1804) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Fagaras Mountains (Southern Carpathians). Entomologica romanica 16: 19-22.

Schmitt, T. (2005) Zygaena trifolii : observation of an autumn generation in southwestern Portugal (Lepidoptera : Zygaenidae). — Linneana Belgica 20: 48-50.

Schmitt, T. (2003) Cynthia virginiensis (Drury, 1773) : new records in central and southern Portugal (Lepidoptera. Nymphalidae). — Linneana Belgica 19: 95-98.

Schmitt, T. (2002) The Biology of Erebia medusa ([Denis & Schiffermüller],1775) in Central Europe (Lepidoptera). — Acta Biologica Debrecina 24: 113-129.

Schmitt, T. (2002) Biogeographie und regionale populationsgenetische Strukturierung von Polyommatus coridon (Lycaenidae: Lepoidoptera) im Saarland und in Rheinland-Pfalz. — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 28: 117-130.

Schmitt, T. & Stockhusen, N. (2001) Die Tagfalter und Widderchen des Bleichkopfs bei Jugenheim in Rheinhessen (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera, Zygaenidae). — Pflanzen und Tiere in Rheinland-Pfalz (Berichtsjahr 2000) 11: 186-190.

Schmitt, T. (2001) Schmetterlinge und nachhaltige Forstwirtschaft – erste Ergebnisse aus dem Oettinger Forst. — GCD-Nachrichten 1/2001: 20-25.

Schmitt, T. (2001) Beobachtungen zum Eiablageverhalten und zu Raupenfutterpflanzen von Tagfaltern und Widderchen im südwestlichen Hunsrück im Jahr 2001. — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 27: 203-212.

Schmitt, T. (2000) Eine Erebia aethiopella (Hoffmannsegg, 1806) mit drei Fühlern (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). — Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 21: 191-192.

Schmitt, T. (2000) Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758) am 13. März 1999 in Südwesthessen (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae). — Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 20: 320.

Schmitt, T. (2000) Beobachtungen zum Eiablageverhalten und zu Raupenfutterpflanzen von Tagfaltern im südwestlichen Hunsrück im Jahr 2000. — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 26: 143-148.

Schmitt, T. (1999) Die ökologischen Valenzen der Tagfalter des mittleren Löstertals. — Faunis­tisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland 29: 585-614.

Schmitt, T. (1999) Eiablageverhalten und Raupenfutterpflanzen von Tagfaltern im südwestlichen Hunsrück. — Faunistisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland 30: 659-670.

Schmitt, T. (1999) Nachtrag zu den ökologischen Valenzen der Tagfalter des mittleren Löstertals. — Faunistisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland 30: 671-680.

Schmitt, T. (1998) Beobachtungen zur Eiablage von Lemonia dumi L. (Lepidoptera, Lemoniidae) im NSG Badstube bei Mimbach. — Faunistisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland 28: 580-582.

Schmitt, T. (1998) Blütenpräferenzen von Tagfaltern im südwestlichen Hunsrück (Lepidoptera). — Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 19: 161-204.

Schmitt, T. & Heidenreich, A. (1998) Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung des Kleinen Perlmutterfalters Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rheinland-Pfalz und im Saarland 1996 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). — Atalanta 28: 271-276.

Schmitt, T. (1998) Tagfalterbeobachtungen in rheinland-pfälzischen Naturschutzgebieten. — Mainzer naturwissenschaftliches Archiv 36: 217-251.

Schmitt, T. (1993) Biotopansprüche von Erebia medusa brigobanna FRUHSTORFER, 1917 (Rundaugen-Mohrenfalter) im Nordsaarland. — Atalanta 24: 33-56.

Schmitt, T. (1991) Groß-Schmetterlinge als Bioindikatoren unter besonderer Berück-sichtigung der Lokalfauna des nördlichen Saarlandes. — Faunistisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland. 22: 93-99.

Schmitt, T., Summkeller, R., Werno, A. & Zahm, N. (1991) Neue und wiederentdeckte Arten für die saarländische Lepidopterenfauna. — Faunistisch-floristische Notizen aus dem Saarland 22: 100-115.

Schmitt, T. (1991) Energetischer und ökonomischer Vergleich verschiedener Landwirt-schaftsmethoden. — Geographie und Schule 13, Heft 71: 39-44.


Schmitt, T. (2019) Besprechung / Review: Brockhaus, T. 2018: Die Eiszeitlibellen der Alten Welt – Pleistozäne Biogeographie paläarktischer Libellen. – Zoologica – Original Contributions to Zoology 163, Schweizerbart Science Publishers, Stuttgart: 145 S. – ISBN: 978-3-510-55050-0. — Contributions to Entomology 69: 78.

Schmitt, T. (2019) Besprechung / Review: Sobczyk, T.; Stöckel, D.; Graf, F.; Jornitz, H.; Karisch, T. & Wauer, S. 2018: Die Schmetterlingsfauna (Lepidoptera) der Oberlausitz. Teil 5: Kleinschmetterlinge (Microleidoptera) 1. Teil. – Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte (Dresden), Beiheft 22, Dresden: 439 S. – ISSN: 0232-5535. — Contributions to Entomology 69: 86.

Schmitt, T. (2019) Besprechung / Review:Neu, P.; Malicky, H.; Graf, W. & Schmidt-Kloiber, A. 2018: Distribution Atlas of the European Trichoptera. – Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 84. Teil. – ConchBooks, Harxheim: 891 pp. – ISBN: 978-3-939767-93-0. — Contributions to Entomology 69: 187-189.

Schmitt, T. (2019) Geleitwort. — In: Brockhaus, T. Die Eiszeitlibellen der Alten Welt – Pleistozäne Biogeographie paläarktischer Libellen. — Zoologica 163: 3.

Schmitt, T. (2019) Das große Insektensterben: Auch häufige Arten verschwinden. — Senckenberg 2018: 14-17.

Schmitt, T. (2018) Schmetterlingsparadiese und warum sie bei uns so selten geworden sind. — Natur • Forschung • Museum 147: 172–177.

Schmitt, T. (2018) Mit Schmetterlingen zur Professur. — In: Verband für Biologie, Biowissenschaften und Biomedizin in Deutschland e.V. – VBIO (ed.) Perspektiven. Berufsbilder von und für Biologen und Biowissenschaftler, 10. Aufl.: 25–27.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Besprechung / Review: Gaedike, R.; Nuss, M.; Steiner, A. & Trusch, R. (Hrsg.) 2017: „Verzeichnis der Schmetterlinge Deutschlands (Lepidoptera)“. – Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, Beiheft 21, Dresden: 362 S. – ISSN 0232-5535. — Contributions to Entomology 67: 362.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Besprechung / Review: Hofmann, A. F. & Tremewan, W. G. 2017: The natural history of burnet moths (Zygaena Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), part 1. – Proceedings of the Museum Witt, Munich, Vilnius: 631 pp. – ISBN 978-3-940732-32-3. — Contributions to Entomology 67: 324.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Besprechung / Review: Willner, W. 2017: „Taschenlexikon der Schmetterlinge Europas – Alle Tagfalter im Porträt“. – Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim: 450 S. – ISBN 978-3-494-01633-7. — Contributions to Entomology 67: 254.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Besprechung / Review: Kunz, W. 2016: “Species Conservation in managed Habitats. The Myth of a Pristine Nature“. – Wiley-VCH, Weinheim: 273 pp. – ISBN: 978-3-527-33845-0. — Contributions to Entomology 67: 116.

Schmitt, T. (2017) Insektensammlungen: Wichtige Archive für den Naturschutz. — Natur • Forschung • Museum 147: 142–145.

Habel, J.C., Segerer, A. & Schmitt, T. (2016) „Früher gab es mehr Schmetterlinge“ Langzeitstudie untersucht Entwicklung von Tagfaltern und Widderchen. — Naturmagazin 3/2016: 12-16.

Schmitt, T. (2016) Besprechung / Review: Klausnitzer, B.; Klausnitzer, U.; Wachmann, E. & Hromátko, Z. 2016: Die Bockkäfer Mitteleuropas, in zwei Bänden; 3., stark überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Neue Brehm Bücherei, Band 499 – Verlags KG Wolf, Magdeburg: 692 S. — Contributions to Entomology 66: 156-157.

Schmitt, T. (2016) Besprechung / Review Keil, T. 2015: Die Widderchen Mittelasiens. – 19. Beiheft der Entomologischen Nachrichten und Berichte: 84 S. — Contributions to Entomology 66: 112.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Editorial: Neues Design außen mit altgewohnter Qualität innen. — Abhandlungen der Delattinia 40: 5-6.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Besprechung / Review Kudrna, O.; Pennersdorfer, J. & Lux, K. 2015: Distribution Atlas of European Butterflies and Skippers. – Wissenschaftlicher Verlag PEKS, Schwanfeld, Deutschland. – ISBN 978-3-938249-71-0. — Contributions to Entomology 65: 326.

Schmitt, T. & Groll, E. (2015) Editorial. — Contributions to Entomology 65: 1-2.

Köhler, A. & Schmitt T. (2015) Die Entomologentagung 2015 in Frankfurt am Main: eine Nachlese. DGaaE-Nachrichten 29: 11-14.

Schmitt, T. (2015) Bericht über die Entomologentagung 2015 vom 2. bis 5. März in Frankfurt (Main). — Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte 59: 74-76.

Nagel, P. & Schmitt, T. (2011) Nachruf auf Paul Müller 11.10.1940 – 30.05.2010. — Mitteilungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 2011: 46-50.

Schmitt, T. & Schreiber, H. (2010) Nachruf Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Paul Müller (1940-2010). Abhandlungen der Delattinia 35/36: 585-591.

Konvička, M., Kuras, T., Beneš, J., Čižek, O. & Schmitt, T. (2008) Endemičtí okáči vysokých Sudet: Vliv změn klimatu a hospodaření na populace vysokohorských motýlů. — Vesmír 87: 516-521.

Schmitt, T. (2006) Rettet die bunten Gaukler der bunten Sommerwiesen. — NABUlletin 2006.2: 15-17.

Schmitt, T. (2004) Mit Schmetterlingen zum Professor für Molekulare Biogeographie. — Pp. 20-21 in: Verband Deutscher Biologen (ed.) Perspektiven. Berufsbilder von und für Biologen, 4. Aufl.

Schmitt, T. & Stockhusen, N. (2001) Die Tagfalter und Widderchen auf den NABU-Flächen am Bleichkopf. — NABUlletin 2001.1: 26-27.

Schmitt, T. (1996) Magerwiesen – Kleinodien im Nordsaarland. — Naturschutz im Saarland 96.2: 30-32.

Schmitt, T. (1994) Kein Sommer ohne Schmetterlinge. — In: Vogel- und Pflanzenschutz­verein Otzenhausen (Hrsg.) Begleiter durch die heimische Natur: 69-73.