Soil Organisms

2011 Issues

Issue 83 (3)  December 2011

Proceedings of the 8th International Seminar on Apterygota 

Preface

Special Symposium on Protura

Pass, G. & N. U. Szucsich
100 years of research on the Protura: many secrets still retained

Böhm, A., D. Bartel, N. U. Szucsich & G. Pass
Confocal imaging of the exo- and endoskeleton of
Protura after non-destructive DNA extraction

Dell’Ampio, E., N. U. Szucsich & G. Pass
Protura and molecular phylogenetics: status quo of a young love

Taxonomy/ Morphology/ Phylogeny

Bach de Roca, C., M. Gaju, L. F. Mendes & R. Molero
Redescription of Trigoniophthalmus graecanicusWygodzinsky, 1941 (Insecta: Microcoryphia), with first description of the male  
 
Chimitova, A. & M. Potapov
Epitoky in Scutisotoma stepposa (Collembola; Isotomidae) 
 
Schneider, C., C. Cruaud & C. A. D’Haese
Unexpected diversity in Neelipleona revealed by molecular phylogeny approach (Hexapoda, Collembola) 
 
Sekiya, K. & R. Machida
Formation of the entognathy of Dicellurata, Occasjapyx japonicus(Enderlein,1907) (Hexapoda: Diplura, Dicellurata) 

Biogeography/ Ecology

Chauvat, M., J. Trap, G. Perez, P. Delporte & M. Aubert
Assemblages of Collembola across a 130-year chronosequence of beech forest 
 
Dányi, L.
Cave dwelling springtails (Collembola) of Hungary: a review  
 
Greenslade, P., L. Bell & S. Florentine
Auditing revegetated catchments in southern Australia decomposition rates and collembolan species assemblages  
 
Nietschke, L., I. Burfeindt, A. Seupt & J. Filser
Collembola and seed germination: relevance of substrate quality and evidence for seed attack 
 
Petersen, H.
Collembolan communities in shrublands along climatic gradients in Europe and the effect of experimental warming and drought on population density, biomass and diversity 
 
Russell, D. J., H.-J. Schulz, K. Hohberg, H. Pfanz
Occurrence of collembolan fauna in mofette fields (natural carbon-dioxide springs) of the Czech Republic
 
Shaw, P., M. Dunscombe & A. Robertson
Collembola in the hyporheos of a karstic river: an overlooked habitat for Collembola containing a new genus for the UK

Short communication

Shaw, P. & C. Ozanne
A calibration of the efficiency of Winkler eclectors for extracting Collembola at different humidities  
 
Thanks to referees

Special Symposium on Protura

100 years of research on the Protura: many secrets still retained

Pass, G. & N. U. Szucsich

Title: 100 years of research on the Protura: many secrets still retained

Abstract

The Protura were discovered relatively late in the history of entomology. The first description of these minute soil arthropods was given in 1907 by the Italian entomologist Filippo Silvestri, who named them ‘Protura’. Shortly thereafter his fellow countryman Antonio Berlese published two brief notes on these animals before his grand monograph of the ‘Myrientomata’, as he named them, appeared in 1909.
The centennial of the discovery of Protura offers the opportunity to review our knowledge about these peculiar animals. In the end, we must confess that proturans continue to retain an amazing number of secrets, including basic facts of knowledge about their biology and ecology. Up to the present, they have concealed from scientific observation their sexual life and the mode of sperm transmission. For a long time, their egg deposition and early development were completely obscure topics; only recently has it become possible to conduct first observations on their embryology. The list of open questions can be easily extended: we know only little about their nutritional biology, and next to nothing about their sensory systems, communication, physiological and ecological capacities.
The greatest progress in proturan research over the past 100 years has been made in the field of taxonomy. Nonetheless, the road of taxonomy was bumpy and the proturans proved to be awkward travel companions. Species are exceedingly difficult to determine; and the number of living scientists that are able to unambiguously identify specimens at the species level can be counted on two hands. Proturans inhabit soils in all terrestrial regions of the earth (excepting the Arctic and Antarctic regions). Presently, a total of 787 valid species has been described. Because of the high standards of Berlese’s 1909 monograph, several decades would pass before morphological and anatomical research could equal or go beyond his classical landmark. In more recent times, remarkable contributions have been made to the ultrastructural investigation of internal organs and sperm morphology; hereby, the proturans proved again to be odd and unusual in many respects. The peculiarities of Protura have evoked heated debates about their phylogenetic position from the beginning, and such discussions have recently been revived by the introduction of molecular data. The review comprehends an extensive reference list on all research topics except taxonomy, which recently was compiled by Szeptycki (2007).

Keywords: Hexapoda, Apterygota, Ellipura, Nonoculata, history of research

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Authors

Günther Pass
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria;
guenther.pass@univie.ac.at

Nikolaus Urban Szucsich
Department of Entomology, Biocenter Grindel and Zoological Museum,
University of Hamburg,
Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, D-20146, Hamburg, Germany

Confocal imaging of the exo- and endoskeleton of Protura after non-destructive DNA extraction

Böhm, A., D. Bartel, N. U. Szucsich & G. Pass

Title: Confocal imaging of the exo- and endoskeleton of Protura after non-destructive DNA extraction

Abstract

In certain minute arthropods, such as Protura, species determination cannot be performed unambiguously without clearing and slide mounting of specimens. This causes an awkward dilemma for scientists conducting molecular research, since conventional DNA extraction entails destruction of the whole specimen. Thus, single individuals can be used either to obtain molecular data or for determination purposes. Such molecular datasets are thus dependent on determination of co-habitant specimens, and entries in GenBank are highly prone to misidentification.
To overcome this problem, we applied a non-destructive DNA extraction method and subsequently used confocal autofluorescence imaging to analyse and document cuticular characters of the same specimens. Alternatively the preparations can be examined by conventional microscopy. Our results show that the used non-destructive extraction method results in completely clear cuticular remains and does not significantly affect autofluorescence or shape. The acquired confocal image stacks and resulting volume renderings are useful to visualise, reconstruct and quantify structures for taxonomic purposes but also for morphological investigation of special cuticular structures such as the head endoskeleton of hexapods.

Keywords: Cuticle, CLSM, autofluorescence, Congo red

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Video 1

Video 2

Authors

Alexander Böhm
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria;
guenther.pass@univie.ac.at

Daniela Bartel
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Nikolaus Urban Szucsich
Biozentrum Grindel und Zoologisches Museum Hamburg,
Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany

Günther Pass
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria;
guenther.pass@univie.ac.at

Protura and molecular phylogenetics: status quo of a young love

Dell’Ampio, E., N. U. Szucsich & G. Pass

Title: Protura and molecular phylogenetics: status quo of a young love

Abstract

Protura are among the latecomers to molecular phylogenetics. The first sequences were published about a decade ago; since then relatively little additional data has been collected. Nonetheless, the available molecular phylogenetic analyses have provided valuable contributions towards the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of the Protura. All studies endorse Protura as closely related to hexapods. To detail, remarkable results were obtained with respect to the potential hexapod sister group. Only few molecular studies support the traditional Ellipura hypothesis (Protura plus Collembola). Almost all corroborate a sister group relationship between Protura and Diplura, which previously was never considered by morphologists. Besides the absence of eyes (hence the name Nonoculata proposed by Luan et al. 2005), few further substantial morphological synapomorphies have yet been mentioned to support this taxon. With respect to the internal relationships among the different groups of Protura, molecular data indicates monophyly of Acerentomata and Eosentomata, while Sinentomata seem to be para- or polyphyletic; a result also obtained in some morphological analyses. However, since the molecular taxon sampling remains meagre, any conclusions must be treated as preliminary. Requirements for further molecular investigations are pointed out.

Keywords: Hexapoda, Nonoculata, Ellipura, mitochondrial genomes, EST

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Authors

Emiliano Dell’Ampio
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria;
emiliano.dell.ampio@univie.ac.at

Nikolaus Urban Szucsich
Department of Entomology, Biocenter Grindel and Zoological Museum,
University of Hamburg,
Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany

Günther Pass
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna,
Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria;
guenther.pass@univie.ac.at

 

Taxonomy/ Morphology/ Phylogeny

Redescription of Trigoniophthalmus graecanicus Wygodzinsky, 1941 (Insecta: Microcoryphia), with first description of the male

Bach de Roca, C., M. Gaju, L. F. Mendes & R. Molero

Title: Redescription of Trigoniophthalmus graecanicusWygodzinsky, 1941 (Insecta: Microcoryphia), with first description of the male

Abstract

The description of the male of Trigoniophthalmus graecanicus Wygodzinsky, 1941 (a previous study was only based on females) is here reported. Several samples from Greece allow us to describe the male and also to provide further morphological characteristics of the female that were not properly considered in the original description. The relationship between T. graecanicus and its closest related species T. alternatus (Silvestri, 1904), is also discussed.

Keywords: taxonomy, systematics, Microcoryphia, Machilinae, Greece

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Authors

Carmen Bach de Roca
Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d’Ecologia,
Unitat de Zoologia, Facultat de Biociències,
Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, España;
Carmen.Bach@uab.cat

Miquel Gaju
Universidad de Córdoba, Departamento de Zoología, Edificio Darwin,
Campus de Rabanales, E-14014 Córdoba, España

Luis F. Mendes
Unidade de Zoologia, IICT/JBT. R. da Junqueira, 14, P-1300-343 Lisboa, Portugal

Rafael Molero
Universidad de Córdoba, Departamento de Zoología, Edificio Darwin, Campus de Rabanales, E-14014 Córdoba, España

Epitoky in Scutisotoma stepposa (Collembola; Isotomidae)

Chimitova, A. & M. Potapov

Title: Epitoky in Scutisotoma stepposa (Collembola; Isotomidae)

Abstract

Reproductive males of Scutisotoma stepposa Martynova from two basins of Vitim Plateau (Russia: East Siberia) display epitoky in three forms. ‘Supermales’ are armed with strong macrosetae, brushes on ventrum of abdomen, callosities on tube and legs, bent and thickened antennae. ‘Modest’ males have only strong macrosetae and slightly thickened antennae. ‘Neutral’ males are indistinguishable from females. In the Vitim Plateau, the species often forms mass aggregations. Population sizes of S. stepposaare usually depressed during the first half of the summer and increase as of August. The reproductive individuals occur during the entire vegetative season, and all three types of males can occur together. ‘Neutral’ males are more frequent under low population densities, while ‘supermales’ are seen only in aggregations. Taxonomic remarks and new records of S. stepposa from the Palearctic are given.

Keywords: Polymorphism, aggregations, sexual dimorphism, life cycle, swarm

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Authors

Ayuna Chimitova
Department of Zoology and Ecology, Moscow State Pedagogical University,
Kibalchich str., 6, korp. 5, Moscow 129164, Russia

Mikhail Potapov
Department of Zoology and Ecology, Moscow State Pedagogical University,
Kibalchich str., 6, korp. 5, Moscow 129164, Russia;
mpnk@orc.ru

Unexpected diversity in Neelipleona revealed by molecular phylogeny approach (Hexapoda, Collembola)

Schneider, C., C. Cruaud & C. A. D’Haese

Title: Unexpected diversity in Neelipleona revealed by molecular phylogeny approach (Hexapoda, Collembola)

Abstract

Neelipleona are the smallest of the four Collembola orders in term of species number with 35 species described worldwide (out of around 8000 known Collembola). Despite this apparent poor diversity, Neelipleona have a worldwide repartition. The fact that the most commonly observed species, Neelus murinus Folsom, 1896 and Megalothorax minimus Willem, 1900, display cosmopolitan repartition is striking. A cladistic analysis based on 16S rDNA, COX1 and 28S rDNA D1 and D2 regions, for a broad collembolan sampling was performed. This analysis included 24 representatives of the Neelipleona genera Neelus Folsom, 1896 and Megalothorax Willem, 1900 from various regions. The interpretation of the phylogenetic pattern and number of transformations (branch length) indicates that Neelipleona are more diverse than previously thought, with probably many species yet to be discovered. These results buttress the rank of Neelipleona as a whole order instead of a Symphypleona family.

Keywords: Collembola, Neelidae, MegalothoraxNeelus, COX1, 16S, 28S

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Authors

Clément Schneider
UMR7205 CNRS, Département Systématique et Évolution,
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle,
CP50 Entomology, 45 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France;
clement.schneider@mnhn.fr

Corinne Cruaud
Genoscope, Centre National de Sequençage,
2 rue G. Crémieux, CP5706, 91057 Evry cedex, France

Cyrille A. D’Haese
UMR7205 CNRS, Département Systématique et Évolution,
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle,
CP50 Entomology, 45 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France

Formation of the entognathy of Dicellurata, Occasjapyx japonicus(Enderlein,1907) (Hexapoda: Diplura, Dicellurata)

Sekiya, K. & R. Machida

Title: Formation of the entognathy of Dicellurata, Occasjapyx japonicus(Enderlein,1907) (Hexapoda: Diplura, Dicellurata)

Abstract

The development of the entognathy in Dicellurata was examined using Occasjapyx japonicus (Enderlein, 1907). The formation of entognathy involves rotation of the labial appendages, resulting in a tandem arrangement of the glossa, paraglossa and labial palp. The mandibular, maxillary and labial terga extend ventrally to form the mouth fold. The intercalary tergum also participates in the formation of the mouth fold. The labial coxae extending anteriorly unite with the labial terga, constituting the posterior region of the mouth fold, the medial half of which is later partitioned into the admentum. The labial appendages of both sides migrate medially, and the labial subcoxae fuse to form the postmentum, which posteriorly confines the entognathy. The entognathy formation in Dicellurata is common to that in another dipluran suborder, Rhabdura. The entognathy of Diplura greatly differs from that of Protura and Collembola in the developmental plan, preventing homologization of the entognathies of Diplura and other two entognathan orders.

Keywords: Entognatha, comparative embryology, mouth fold, admentum, postmentum

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Authors

Kaoru Sekiya
Sugadaira Montane Research Center, University of Tsukuba,
Sugadaira Kogen, Ueda, Nagano 386-2204, Japan;
kaoru-s@sugadaira.tsukuba.ac.jp

Ryuichiro Machida
Sugadaira Montane Research Center, University of Tsukuba,
Sugadaira Kogen, Ueda, Nagano 386-2204, Japan

Biogeography/ Ecology

Assemblages of Collembola across a 130-year chronosequence of beech forest

Chauvat, M., J. Trap, G. Perez, P. Delporte & M. Aubert

Title: Assemblages of Collembola across a 130-year chronosequence of beech forest 

Abstract

Although microarthropods dominate forest floor faunas in both diversity and abundance, long-term aspects of forest cycles have been widely neglected in soil ecological research in the past. We studied which modifications occurred within collembolan assemblages during a typical beech forest cycle from the north-western part of France. We selected 16 sites representative for four age-classes: 15-year, 65-year, 90-year and 130-year-old stands. Strongly significant effects of the factor ‘age class’ reflect increasing collembolan abundance, biomass and mean species richness throughout the ageing of the forest. However, none of the species could be depicted as an indicator for a specific age class. Nevertheless, shifts in the relative abundances of dominant or subdominant species were responsible for significant differences between communities of the four successional stages. Our results differ from previous studies, highlighting on the one hand the multiplicity of factors acting on soil invertebrates, and on the other hand the need for forest management aiming at combining productivity and biodiversity conservation to adapt to regional differences in tree species, soil, substrate and climatic conditions.

Keywords: Springtails, succession, forest management, soil fauna

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Authors

Matthieu Chauvat
Laboratoire d’Ecologie, EA 1293 ECODIV, Fédération de Recherche SCALE,
Bâtiment IRESE A, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Université de Rouen,
F-76821 Mont Saint Aignan, France;
matthieu.chauvat@univ-rouen.fr

Jean Trap

Gabriel Perez

Philippe Delporte

Michaël Aubert

Cave dwelling springtails (Collembola) of Hungary: a review

Dányi, L.

Title: Cave dwelling springtails (Collembola) of Hungary: a review 

Abstract

A historical review of Hungarian cave springtail studies is given. All literature concerning this field is compiled and the species are listed along with their localities. In spite of the relatively low number of caves investigated regarding their Collembola fauna, 67 species have been reported from Hungarian caves until now. Eleven taxa are endemic to the cave or karst system where they were described from, which indicates highly promising perspectives for further biospeleological research in Hungary. The listed species are discussed in relation to the collembolan fauna of neighbouring countries and an attempt is made to discern zoogeographical patterns within the country.

Keywords: Biospeleology, troglobiont, faunistics, endemism, subterranean

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László Dányi
Systematic Zoology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
and Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum,
Baross u. 13. H-1088, Budapest, Hungary;
danyi@nhmus.hu

Auditing revegetated catchments in southern Australia decomposition rates and collembolan species assemblages

Greenslade, P., L. Bell & S. Florentine

Title: Auditing revegetated catchments in southern Australia decomposition rates and collembolan species assemblages

Abstract

Major government funds have been allocated to revegetation of degraded catchments in Australia in order to enhance biodiversity, protect stock and improve water quality. However, the success or otherwise of the different restoration practices used has not been assessed. To redress this deficiency we audited these practices by measuring biotic and abiotic variables in two field surveys, one at a landscape scale and the second at a local scale. The landscape survey comprised 21 sites in western Victoria, a third of the sites were revegetated and were between 8 and 12 years old, a third carried remnant native vegetation and a third were degraded and not revegetated. In the local survey the results of the landscape survey were tested by sampling sites within a small area using the same methods but including pine plantations as an untreated site. Here we report on density and species composition of soil and surface active fauna, native and exotic Collembola and decomposition rates as measured with bait laminae. Fifty seven species of Collembola were found on the landscape survey and 47 on the local survey. Densities ranged from 17,000 to 45,000 m‾² in soil. In both the surveys we found decomposition was directly related to soil moisture and in the landscape survey exotic Collembola (Hypogastrura and Ceratophysella spp) to abundance of exotic grass species. MDS analysis of soil Collembola in the landscape survey placed remnant sites separate from the revegetated sites and untreated sites, which tended to cluster together. A suite of nine native Collembola species were found exclusively on remnant sites in the landscape survey. In the local survey, the revegetated sites, here with a ground cover of native not exotic grasses, were found to have nine characterising species, four of which were the same indicators as in the landscape survey. The pine plantations were dominated by acidophil exotic Collembola species. MDS analysis of pitfall data in local survey placed all sites in the same space, except for one remnant because of domination by the same exotic species as in the landscape survey. In contrast, MDS of the soil-core data separated all three treatments with the revegetated sites occupying the space between the remnants and the pines as in the landscape survey. When exotic species were removed, there was spatial separation of each treatment. We conclude that, in some circumstances, soil fauna of revegetated sites can develop characteristics of remnant sites in terms of native Collembola even after only 8 to 12 years. The bait lamina method must be used with caution as it is strongly influenced by soil moisture.

Keywords: Hypogastruridae, bait lamina, exotic species, native species, pine plantations

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Authors

Penelope Greenslade
Environmental Management, School of Science,
Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ballarat,
Victoria, 3353, Australia;
pgreenslade@staff.ballarat.edu.au

Lesa Bell

Singarayer Florentine

Collembola and seed germination: relevance of substrate quality and evidence for seed attack

Nietschke, L., I. Burfeindt, A. Seupt & J. Filser

Title: Collembola and seed germination: relevance of substrate quality and evidence for seed attack

Abstract

Besides species-specific characteristics and abiotic conditions, germination rate of seeds depends on biotic interactions such as seed predation and fungal-induced mortality.
We investigated the influence of Folsomia candida Willem, 1902 on the germination rate of four grassland plant species (Agrostis capillaris L., Hypericum perforatum L., Plantago major L. and Vicia cracca L.) in grassland soils and in artificial soil under laboratory conditions. Just one of the selected plant species, H. perforatum, showed a significant positive increase in germination rate in presence of the euedaphic F. candida in the artificial soil substrate whereas no effect was found in natural soils. The influence of Collembola on seed germination therefore appears highly dependent both on the experimental conditions and on the Collembola species studied.
However, the study at the same time revealed an unexpected observation which opens another aspect under which Collembola might directly influence seed mortality: Pictures made during the germination experiment gave evidence that individuals of F. candida fed on the mucilaginous seed coat as well as on the seed embryo of P. major under the prevailing conditions. This effect was confirmed in a second experiment in the natural soil Lufa 2.2.
The overall impact on seed germination was only small, but significant. Besides one hidden hint in a book, so far it has not been reported in the literature that Collembola use seeds as a food source and therefore can potentially act as seed predators.

Keywords: Folsomia candidaHypericum perforatumPlantago major, seed germination, soil fungi

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Authors

Lena Nietschke
University of Bremen, UFT Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology,  Dept. 10 – General and Theoretical Ecology,
Leobener Str. 28359 Bremen, Germany

Iris Burfeindt
University of Bremen, UFT Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology,  Dept. 10 – General and Theoretical Ecology,
Leobener Str. 28359 Bremen, Germany

Alexander Seupt
University of Bremen, UFT Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology,  Dept. 10 – General and Theoretical Ecology,
Leobener Str. 28359 Bremen, Germany

Juliane Filser
University of Bremen, UFT Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology,  Dept. 10 – General and Theoretical Ecology,
Leobener Str. 28359 Bremen, Germany;
filser@uni-bremen.de

Collembolan communities in shrublands along climatic gradients in Europe and the effect of experimental warming and drought on population density, biomass and diversity

Petersen, H.

Title: Collembolan communities in shrublands along climatic gradients in Europe and the effect of experimental warming and drought on population density, biomass and diversity

Abstract

Sampling of arthropods from plants, soil surface and soil was carried out at six sites in shrublands across Europe as part of a multi-disciplinary, EU-sponsored ecosystem research project: ‘VULCAN: Vulnerability assessment of shrubland ecosystems in Europe under climatic changes’. Climatic gradients spanned from cold temperate heath- and moorland (Netherlands, Denmark, Wales) to Mediterranean maquis (Catalonia, Sardinia) and from moist moorland (Wales) to dry continental forest-steppe shrubland (Hungary). The experimental setup at each site included three warming plots where radiation during the night was impeded, resulting in an average air temperature increase of 0.3– 1.3 °C. (April–June 2003), three drought plots where precipitation was prevented during 1–4 months in the growing season and three control plots.
Collembolan biomass and, less distinctly, population density and average individual weight in the control plots decreased from the northern to the southern sites, suggesting a latitudinal cline controlled by temperature or interaction between temperature and moisture. In contrast, species richness tended to increase from North to South. The extremely dry Hungarian site with low biomass and number of species differed from this pattern and fit into a moisture-controlled cline from humid Atlantic to dry continental climates. These observations may reflect long-term adaptations to climate. Both warming and drought treatments resulted in significant effects on collembolan density and biomass. More significant effects were observed in the drought treatments than in the warming treatments. The most significant effects for total Collembola and individual collembolan species were found in the Dutch and the Spanish sites, while only few were found in the British, Hungarian and Italian sites. Nearly all significant effects of both warming and drought treatments were negative. Differential responses, i.e. negative, positive or unaffected, of individual species resulted in changes in community structure. The vertical distribution between plants, soil surface and soil showed an increasing proportion of collembolan biomass in the soil layer concurrently with a decreasing proportion in the soil surface layer from the northern to the southern sites. The same change in vertical distribution was observed in several sites as a response to the warming and drought treatments. It is concluded that the effects on collembolan communities resulting from climatic manipulations are very complicated and the result of many direct and indirect factors, partly acting in opposite directions.

Keywords: Collembola, climate, soil, ecosystem, community

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Henning Petersen
Natural History Museum, Mols Laboratory,
Strandkaervej 6-8, Femmøller, DK8400 Ebeltoft, Denmark;
henning@molslab.dk

Occurrence of collembolan fauna in mofette fields (natural carbon-dioxide springs) of the Czech Republic

Russell, D. J., H.-J. Schulz, K. Hohberg, H. Pfanz

Title: Occurrence of collembolan fauna in mofette fields (natural carbon-dioxide springs) of the Czech Republic

Abstract

Mofette fields are naturally occurring, cold, volcanic gas vents that emit geogenic CO2 through surface waters or the soil into the atmosphere. Soil CO2 concentrations can reach 100% in the centre of these fields. High ground-level CO2 concentrations can accumulate and become lethal traps, as evidenced by undecomposed vertebrate and invertebrate remains littering the areas. Nonetheless, plant growth is possible, and an adapted, partly azonal vegetation often occurs in mofette fields. The obvious impossibility of above-ground animal life in such fields led to the question of the occurrence of endogeic soil fauna, which are generally considered to be adapted to elevated soil CO2 concentrations. For this reason a series of small pilot studies were undertaken in mofette fields in the north-western Czech Republic to ascertain (1) whether Collembola occur at all at such high soil CO2 concentrations and (2) if so, does a specific collembolan fauna occur analogous to the mofettophilous vegetation of such habitats. Twelve collembolan species in, at times, substantial populations were found even at soil CO2 concentrations approaching 100%. It can be assumed that these species are at least temporarily able to survive the anaerobic conditions. At 20–40% CO2, 13 species were found and 23 species at ‘normal’ CO2 concentrations, so that species richness decreased with increasing soil CO2 concentration. The highest total densities were found at intermediate concentrations. Possibly azonal species (i.e. Tullbergia simplexFolsomia hissarica) as well as a previously undescribed species (Folsomia mofettophila) were found only at high soil CO2 concentrations. Many species registered at normal soil CO2 concentrations were not found at higher concentrations. The registered species could thus be separated into mofettophilous, mofettotolerant and mofettoxenic species. Interestingly, males of otherwise parthenogenetic Mesaphorura species were regularly found at high soil CO2 concentrations.

Keywords: Collembola, soil CO2, mofette fields, natural carbon-dioxide springs, extreme habitats

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Authors

David J. Russell
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany

Hans-Jürgen Schulz
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
juergen.schulz@senckenberg.de

Karin Hohberg
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany

Hardy Pfanz
Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Botanik, University of Duisburg-Essen,
Univ.-Straße 5, 45117 Essen, Germany

Collembola in the hyporheos of a karstic river: an overlooked habitat for Collembola containing a new genus for the UK

Shaw, P., M. Dunscombe & A. Robertson

Title: Collembola in the hyporheos of a karstic river: an overlooked habitat for Collembola containing a new genus for the UK

Abstract

Collembola are well known to occur in soils and litters, as well as inter-tidal habitats, caves and tree canopies, but are not normally thought of as members of the groundwater community. Here we report on studies of the colonisation of gravels in the hyporheic zone under the river Skirfare, a karstic river in Yorkshire. Unexpectedly, flooding during the second experimental run allowed a comparison between low- and high-flow conditions. Five species of Collembola were found in permanently saturated habitats 30 cm below a river bed. One of these species, Hymenaphorura nova, is the first record of its genus in the UK, and appears to be a groundwater specialist. The other named species (Anurida granaria and Mucrosomia (= Cryptopygusgarretti), Deuteraphorura cebennaria (= D. inermis) have wider distributions but are often associated with mines and caves; D. cebennariais known to occur in the Scoska cave, whose waters feed into the Skirfare shortly upstream of the experimental location. There was some evidence of differences between dates (more first instars and fewer adults after the flood) and between sediments (adults found mainly in coarser materials, first instars in finer sediments), but the statistical significance was weak (0.1 > p > 0.05). The distribution of animals was not clumped (as is typical for Collembola) but followed a Poisson distribution, suggesting it to be primarily random. These results agree with previous authors who suggested that several species of Collembola may live for prolonged periods wholly submerged. The random distribution and their water-repellent cuticles suggest a model of eggs or early instars being washed underground following groundwater, surviving underwater for prolonged periods. We do not have evidence that these Collembola are able to complete their life cycle underwater.

Keywords: Collembola, hyporheic, interstitial fauna

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Authors

Peter Shaw
Department of Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College,
Holybourne Ave., London SW15 4JD, England;
P. Shaw@roehampton.ac.uk

Mark Dunscombe

Anne Robertson

Short communication

A calibration of the efficiency of Winkler eclectors for extracting Collembola at different humidities

Shaw, P. & C. Ozanne

Title: A calibration of the efficiency of Winkler eclectors for extracting Collembola at different humidities

Abstract

It is often desirable to collect Collembola from remote locations where the usual extraction systems based on thermal gradients are simply impossible, e.g. for lack of adequate energy supplies. Winkler funnels are often used in such situations as zero-energy extractors of soil arthropods, but have not been calibrated for the collection of Collembola. Here we report a series of trials comparing densities and species-richness of Collembola in leaf moulds using parallel Tullgren and Winkler extractions. Each litter was tested separately with the Winkler funnel environment at low and at high humidity. Our results showed that Winkler funnels are a poor substitute for Tullgrens, under-recording species by 30% and densities by 78%, suggesting that the basic Winkler funnel method is not suitable for objective quantitative Collembola population studies.

Keywords: Suspended soils, remote fieldwork, field sampling, Tullgren funnels, Winkler funnels

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Authors

Peter Shaw
Department of Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College,
Holybourne Ave., London SW15 4JD, England;
P. Shaw@roehampton.ac.uk

Claire Ozanne

Thanks to referees

Issue 83 (2)  August 2011

Hymenoptera, Collembola, Protura, Lumbricidae und Oribatida

Seifert, B.
A taxonomic revision of the Eurasian Myrmica salina species complex (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae) 
 
Hågvar, S.
Invertebrate activity under snow in a South-Norwegian spruce forest  
 
Roembke, T., J. Roembke & D. Russell
Effects of temperature increases on the feeding activity of two species of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Porcellionides pruinosus) in laboratory tests
 
Jordana, R., M. Potapov & E. Baquero
New species of Entomobryni from Russia and Armenia
(Collembola, Entomobryomorpha)

Jordana, R., H.-J. Schulz & E. Baquero
New species of Entomobrya from Germany (Collembola, Entomobryini) 
 
Blakemore, R. J. & M. J. Grygier
Unraveling some Kinki worms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrili, Lumbricidae) – Part III

Malmström, A. & T. Persson
Responses of Collembola and Protura to tree girdling – some support for ectomycorrhizal feeding  
 
Weigmann, G.
Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. V. Xenillus, Oribatella, Galumna, Eupelops and Lucoppia

All articles

A taxonomic revision of the Eurasian Myrmica salina species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Seifert, B.

Title: A taxonomic revision of the Eurasian Myrmica salina species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Abstract

The Myrmica salina species complex (MSS complex) is distributed in steppes and other xerothermous open habitats of the Mediterranean and south Temperate zone from Iberia to E Kazakhstan, in latitudes between 37° in Central Asia and 56°N in S Sweden. The taxonomic status of twelve taxa belonging to the MSS complex s. str. was assessed. 16 numerically described phenotypic characters of workers and one distributional character were evaluated in explorative (principal component analysis, PCA) and hypothesis-driven (discriminant analysis, DA) approaches on the basis of 157 nest samples with 435 worker specimens from the whole geographic range. The PCA indicated two main clusters which were confirmed by a cross-validated DA in 98.1% of the samples. The two clusters are recognised as the species M. salina Ruzsky, 1905 and M. specioides Bondroit, 1918 which are sympatric over 4000 km of east-west extension of their range. It was not possible to credibly demonstrate a third or fourth entity by PCA, k-means clustering or running different type-series-centered hypotheses in a DA. The taxa M. scabrinodis var. ahngeri Karavajev, 1926 (p = 0.999), M. georgica Seifert, 1987 (p = 0.998) and M. tobiasi Radchenko & Elmes, 2004 (p = 1.000) are synonymised with M. salina (p = 1.000) and M. scabrinodis var. sancta Karavajev, 1926 (p = 0.997), M. scabrinodis var. turcicaSantschi, 1931 (p = 0.983) and M. kozakorum Radchenko & Elmes, 2010 (p = 0.972) with M. specioides (p = 1.000) [in brackets: posterior probability of cluster allocation of the type series in a DA]. M. puerilis Stärcke, 1942, M. puerilis ab. dolens Stärcke, 1942, M. balcanica Sadil, 1952 and M. balcanica var. scrabrinodoides Sadil, 1952, of which type series were not available, are synonymised with M. specioides based upon original description and terrae typicae. High-resolution z-stack photographs of the lectotypes of M. salina and M. specioides are provided. The species identity of a suggested cluster found in Great Caucasus, Armenia and E Turkey cannot be credibly shown by phenotypic and geographic information and should
be checked by means of integrative taxonomy.

Keywords: ant taxonomy, Palaearctic region, cluster analysis, sibling species

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Bernhard Seifert
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz,
P.O.Box 30 01 54, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany
bernhard.seifert@senckenberg.de

Invertebrate activity under snow in a South-Norwegian spruce forest

Hågvar, S.

Title: Invertebrate activity under snow in a South-Norwegian spruce forest

Abstract

The activity of invertebrates under snow was studied by pitfall traps during two winter seasons in a high altitude spruce forest in southern Norway. With a snow layer varying between about 30 and 150 cm during the sampling periods, the temperature in the subnivean air space stayed close to 0 °C. Traps were emptied and replaced at least once a month during the snow-covered period, from October/November to April/May. For phenological purposes, some trapping was also performed just before or after the snow period. Most invertebrate groups were identified to species level. Beneath a permanent snow cover, the most species-rich groups collected were Collembola (22 species), Acari (22 taxa), spiders (12 species) and beetles (13 species). Collembola and Acari (microarthropods) always dominated in numbers. Subnivean catches also included Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Trichoceridae, Limoniidae, Brachycera, Mecoptera, Gastropoda, and Harpacticoidea (Copepoda). Beetle larvae of Cholevidae and Staphylinidae were quite common. Traps placed adjacent to natural cavities between stones etc. did not achieve higher catches than traps on flat ground with a narrow subnivean space, indicating general subnivean activity over the whole forest floor. Many Collembola and Oribatida species were actively feeding under snow, having a characteristic gut content of fungal hyphae and spores. Also the gut of Cholevidae larvae (Coleoptera) contained fungal hyphae and spores, but mixed with decaying plant material. Since fungal feeders perhaps do not need to move much, pitfall trapping may underestimate the extent of subnivean feeding. We hypothesize that certain fungi known to decompose litter beneath snow (snow molds) represent a valuable food source for winter-active Collembola, Acari and Cholevidae larvae. Some of these may be eaten by spiders. Spiders and beetle larvae are among the invertebrates known to be eaten by subnivean shrews, so we support the idea of subnivean food chains.

Keywords: Winter, invertebrate activity, pitfall trap, under snow, spruce forest, Norway

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Authors

Sigmund Hågvar
Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management,
Norwegian University of Life Sciences,
P.O.Box 5003, No-1432 Aas, Norway
sigmund.hagvar@umb.no

Eline Benestad Hågvar
Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management,
Norwegian University of Life Sciences,
P.O.Box 5003, No-1432 Aas, Norway

Effects of temperature increases on the feeding activity of two species of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Porcellionides pruinosus) in laboratory tests

Roembke, T., J. Roembke & D. Russell

Title: Effects of temperature increases on the feeding activity of two species of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Porcellionides pruinosus) in laboratory tests

Abstract

As a consequence of global warming, especially an increase in temperature, basic ecological services provided by Central European soil organisms such as organic matter decomposition might be impacted. Therefore, we investigated whether the feeding activity of isopods, namely a native temperate species, Porcellio scaber, and a Mediterranean species, Porcellionides pruinosus, would be affected by an increase in temperature. In detail, the consumption of litter by isopods at 20 °C and 28 °C was studied. During tests running for two weeks, the woodlice were fed with leaves not only from temperate (Acer plantanoides) but also Mediterranean (Acer opalus) maple trees. While the higher temperature clearly affected Porcellio scaber (higher mortality but also higher consumption), no such effect was found for the Mediterranean species. The results presented here indicate that Porcellionides pruinosus is able to take over the role of Porcellio scaber in Central Europe in litter decomposition in the case of, i.e., distribution changes due to global warming, as it is adapted to higher temperatures and demonstrates a constant feeding rate independent of the food source provided.

Keywords: Isopoda, temperate, Mediterranean, maple leaves, decomposition, global warming

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Authors

Tanja Roembke
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, 
Boettgerstr. 2–14, 65439 Floersheim, Germany

Joerg Roembke
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Boettgerstr. 2–14, 65439 Floersheim, Germany
J-Roembke@ect.de

David Russell
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz,
P.O.Box 30 01 54, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany
david.russell@senckenberg.de

New species of Entomobryni from Russia and Armenia (Collembola, Entomobryomorpha)

Jordana, R., M. Potapov & E. Baquero

Title: New species of Entomobryni from Russia and Armenia (Collembola, Entomobryomorpha)

Abstract

This paper is part of the results of a systematic study of the specimens of Entomobrya and related genera from various European museums and other material obtained from private collections. Various new species from Russia and Armenia were identified: Entomobrya karasukensis n. sp., Entomobrya tuvinica n. sp., Entomobrya pseudolanuginosa n. sp., Entomobrya stebaevae n. sp., Entomobrya kuznetsovae n. sp., Entomobrya brinevi n. sp., Entomobrya primorica n. sp., Entomobrya kabardinica n. sp., Entomobrya taigicola n. sp., Entomobryoides sotoadamesi n. sp. and Prodrepanura altaica n. sp. from Russia, and Entomobrya armeniensis n. sp. from Armenia. For the identification and description of these species we used the set of characters proposed by Jordana and Baquero (2005).

Keywords: morphological characters, chaetotaxy

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Authors

Rafael Jordana
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain;
rjordana@unav.es

Mikhail Potapov
Moscow State Pedagogical University, Biology/Chemistry Faculty, Zoology Department,
Kibalchicha 6, b5 Moscow 2 129278, Russia;
mpnk@orc.ru

Enrique Baquero
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain

New species of Entomobrya from Germany (Collembola, Entomobryini)

Jordana, R., H.-J. Schulz & E. Baquero

Title: New species of Entomobrya from Germany (Collembola, Entomobryini)

Abstract

The systematic study of specimens of Entomobrya from various European museums, private collections and other samplings, allows us to describe several species new of the genus. Specimens from Germany, deposited at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz (SMNG), identified as new species as result of this study, are described: Entomobrya dungeri n. sp., Entomobrya germanica n. sp., Entomobrya saxoniensis n. sp., Entomobrya schulzi Jordana & Baquero n. sp. and Entomobrya dorsolineata n. sp.

Keywords: morphological characters, chaetotaxy

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Authors

Rafael Jordana
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain;
rjordana@unav.es

Hans‑Jürgen Schulz
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz,
P.O.Box 30 01 54, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany
juergen.schulz@senckenberg.de

Enrique Baquero
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
 

Unraveling some Kinki worms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrili, Lumbricidae) – Part III 

Blakemore, R. J. & M. J. Grygier

Title: Unraveling some Kinki worms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrili, Lumbricidae) – Part III 

Abstract

Eisenia anzac sp. nov., unearthed near the Commonwealth War Graves in Yokohama, raises the current Japanese Lumbricidae to 15 (sub-)species. Representing just 11% of JapansŽs named earthworm fauna, most lumbricids are cosmopolitan exotics and only one – Helodrilus hachiojii Blakemore, 2007 – is thought wholly endemic to Japan. Eisenia japonica (Michaelsen, 1892) although native to the Far East has been questionably reported from Germany/Europe. Review is based on types and more recent specimens from rice paddy survey around Lake Biwa in the Kinki region plus ancillary collecting around Tokyo megalopolis. Both prior taxa are comparable (morphologically and via mtDNA COI barcode) to a potentially endemic species newly described herein.

Keywords: lumbricid earthworms, Japan, types, taxonomy, rice paddy

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Authors

Robert J. Blakemore
Department of Zoology, National Museum of Nature & Science (NMST),
3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, 169-0073 Tokyo;
rob.blakemore@gmail.com

Mark J. Grygier
Lake Biwa Museum (LBM), Oroshimo 1091,
Kusatsu-shi, Shiga-ken 525-0001, Japan

Responses of Collembola and Protura to tree girdling - some support for ectomycorrhizal feeding

Malmström, A. & T. Persson

Title: Responses of Collembola and Protura to tree girdling – some support for ectomycorrhizal feeding

Abstract

Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are very common in forest soils, but their role as a food resource for fungivorous soil animals is poorly known. We used two tree-girdling experiments in Picea abies forests and one experiment in a Pinus sylvestris forest, all in northern Sweden, to indirectly test if Collembola and Protura in boreal forest soils prefer EM fungi over other fungi. We assumed that tree girdling will stop the flux of carbohydrates to roots and associated fungi, and thereby inhibit growth and long-term survival of EM fungi. After about one year, proturans decreased in abundance after girdling, indicating that they prefer feeding on EM fungi, while most collembolan species seemed to be unaffected by girdling and the presumed reduction in EM fungi. However, the collembolans Mesaphorura macrochaetaAnurida granaria and Parisotoma notabilis increased in abundance after girdling in one of the three experiments, and Micranurida pygmaea decreased. With the exception of the latter species, this is in accordance with the common opinion that most Collembola prefer saprotrophic fungi over EM fungi, while Protura are at least partly dependent on EM fungi.

Keywords: ectomycorrhiza, food-choice, microarthropods, mycorrhizal fungi, field experiment

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Authors

Anna Malmström
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden;
Anna.Malmstrom@slu.se

Tryggve Persson
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. V. Xenillus, Oribatella, Galumna, Eupelops and Lucoppia

Weigmann, G.

Title: Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. V. Xenillus, OribatellaGalumnaEupelops and Lucoppia

Abstract

Two new species of Oribatida were found in coastal habitats in South-West Portugal and three remarkable species are redescribed. Xenillus halophilus sp. n. (Liacaridae) was found in three different regions of the Algarve inhabiting salt marsh zones with regular salt water inundation; this ecological preference is unique within this genus. All following described and redescribed species inhabit a rocky area with coastal bushland in the estuary region of Ribeira de Aljezur at the Atlantic west coast of the Algarve: Galumna paragibbula sp. n. (Galumnidae), Oribatella tridactyla Ruiz, Subías & Khawash, 1991 (Oribatellidae), Eupelops somalicus (Berlese, 1916) (Phenopelopidae) and Lucoppia burrowsi (Michael, 1990) (Oribatulidae). Taxonomical and systematical remarks are presented on all species, partly with morphological details on related species.

Keywords: Taxonomy, systematics, new species

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Gerd Weigmann
Free University, Institute of Zoology,
Koenigin-Luise-Str. 1–3, 14195 Berlin, Germany
weigmann@zedat.fu-berlin.de

Issue 83 (1)  April 2011

Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola – TULLBERGIIDAE
with 248 figures and 7 tables

Wolfram Dunger¹ & Bettina Schlitt²

¹Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz, P.O.Box 300 154, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany;

²Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz, P.O.Box 300 154, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany;

168 pages

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Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola – Tullbergiidae – with 248 figures and 7 tables

Introduction

The volume ‘Tullbergiidae’ presented here is an entirely revised version, updated and translated into English, of the first edition (appeared as Volume I of the Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola: Tullbergiinae [1994; in German language] by Bettina Schlitt (formerly Zimdars) and Wolfram Dunger).
Accepting the proposition of Deharveng (2004), the ‘subfamily Tullbergiinae’ is again elevated to family rank as Tullbergiidae Bagnall, 1947. The diagnoses of species and genera are completed by our own studies, mainly based on the collections of the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz as well as on material kindly lent out for study especially by the Museum of Natural History Geneva, Switzerland, the Museum of Natural History Paris, France and by several colleagues (see acknowledgements). We further took into account studies concerning the sexual status of (partly or possibly totally) parthenogenetical species of Tullbergiidae (Zimdars & Dunger 2000).
The diagnoses of the 18 palaearctic genera (from 31 genera worldwide) and 64 hol- or palaearctic species were based on original material as far as possible. Nevertheless, this monography to a large extent represents a revision of literature data. Occurrence records have been checked as to their actuality after new descriptions.
Geographically, arctic species are included from Greenland up to the north-eastern Asia as well as species from the Chinese and Himalaya regions north of the 30th degree of latitude.
Data available up to the end of 2010 were taken into consideration.

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Authors

Wolfram Dunger
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz,
P.O.Box 300 154, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany
dunger.ebersbach@gmx.de

Bettina Schlitt
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz,
P.O.Box 300 154, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany
bettina.schlitt@senckenberg.de