Soil Organisms

2012 Issues

Issue 84 (3)  December 2012

Lumbricidae, Acari and Collembola

Emmerling, C. & H. Strunk
Active dispersal of the endo-anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa (Ude) in an experimental box

Hutha, V., A. Siira-Pietikäinen & R. Penttinen
Importance of dead wood for soil mite (Acarina) communities in boreal old-growth forests

Bretfeld, G. & H.-J. Schulz
New species of Sphaeridia Linnaniemi, 1912, sensu Bretfeld & Trinklein 2000 (Insecta, Collembola) from Peru; with short descriptions of the males and a key to the Sphaeridiaspecies described from South America

Weigmann, G.
Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. VI. ChamobatesProtozetomimusProtoribatesOribatula

Barjadze, Sh., H.-J. Schulz, U. Burkhardt, W. E.R. Xylander, R. Djanashvili, M. Salakaia
New records for the Georgian springtail fauna (Collembola)

Gulgenova, A. & M. Potapov
Dungeraphorura, a new genus of Onychiuridae (Collembola) from East Palaearctic

Mendonça, M. C. de & T. C. Silveira
A new species of Tijucameria from Brazil (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae)

Greenslade, P., F. Singarayer & G. Horrocks
Long term effect of fire, flood and grazing on invertebrates in Australia’s arid zone: Collembola and Formicidae

Instructions for authors

Acknowledgements

All articles

Active dispersal of the endo-anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa (Ude) in an experimental box

Emmerling, C. & H. Strunk

Title: Active dispersal of the endo-anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa (Ude) in an experimental box

Abstract

We investigated the potential of the horizontal dispersal of the endo-anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa by using an experimental box of 0.7m3. Two treatments, one with and another without vegetation cover (Miscanthus x giganteus) were compared, each with three replicates and ten earthworm individuals for each replicate. Mean horizontal dispersal of A. longa was 7 cm day-1 in a range of 8 cm (± 3) day-1 in the presence of Miscanthus and 6 (± 2) without. We calculated that the horizontal dispersal per year was in the same range (6 to 8 m yr-1) that was within the typical range of several earthworm species from 2.5 to 14 m yr-1. These findings have significant relevance for studies of earthworm population spread and distribution, especially in light of modelling earthworm immigration potential and velocity, triggered for example through regional climate change.

Keywords: Earthworms, Aporrectodea longa, horizontal movement, earthworm dispersal, experimental box, Miscanthus

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Authors

Christoph Emmerling
University of Trier, FB VI- Department of Soil Science,
Campus II, Behringstraße, 54286 Trier, Germany;
emmerling@uni-trier.de

Heiko Strunk
University of Trier, FB VI- Department of Soil Science,
Campus II, Behringstraße, 54286 Trier, Germany

Importance of dead wood for soil mite (Acarina) communities in boreal old-growth forests

Hutha, V., A. Siira-Pietikäinen & R. Penttinen

Title: Importance of dead wood for soil mite (Acarina) communities in boreal old-growth forests

Abstract

We investigated the potential of the horizontal dispersal of the endo-anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa by using an experimental box of 0.7m3. Two treatments, one with and another without vegetation cover (Miscanthus x giganteus) were compared, each with three replicates and ten earthworm individuals for each replicate. Mean horizontal dispersal of A. longa was 7 cm day-1 in a range of 8 cm (± 3) day-1 in the presence of Miscanthus and 6 (± 2) without. We calculated that the horizontal dispersal per year was in the same range (6 to 8 m yr-1) that was within the typical range of several earthworm species from 2.5 to 14 m yr-1. These findings have significant relevance for studies of earthworm population spread and distribution, especially in light of modelling earthworm immigration potential and velocity, triggered for example through regional climate change.

Keywords: Earthworms | Aporrectodea longa | horizontal movement | earthworm dispersal | experimental box | Miscanthus

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Authors

Christoph Emmerling
University of Trier, FB VI- Department of Soil Science,
Campus II, Behringstraße, 54286 Trier, Germany;
emmerling@uni-trier.de

Heiko Strunk
University of Trier, FB VI- Department of Soil Science,
Campus II, Behringstraße, 54286 Trier, Germany

New species of Sphaeridia Linnaniemi, 1912, sensu Bretfeld & Trinklein 2000 (Insecta, Collembola) from Peru; with short descriptions of the males and a key to the Sphaeridiaspecies described from South America

Bretfeld, G. & H.-J. Schulz

Title: New species of Sphaeridia Linnaniemi, 1912, sensu Bretfeld & Trinklein 2000 (Insecta, Collembola) from Peru; with short descriptions of the males and a key to the Sphaeridiaspecies described from South America

Abstract

From the soil surface of a tropical primary rain forest in Peru eight species of the genus Sphaeridia are described. Also a key is provided to all Sphaeridia species described from South America.

Keywords: Tropical primary rain forest, soil surface, Symphypleona

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Authors

Gerhard Bretfeld
Raiffeisenstr. 7 B, 24242 Felde, Germany;
gerhard.bretfeld@kielnet.net

Hans-Jürgen Schulz
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
juergen.schulz@senckenberg.de

Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. VI. Chamobates, Protozetomimus, Protoribates, Oribatula

Weigmann, G.

Title: Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal. VI. ChamobatesProtozetomimusProtoribatesOribatula

Abstract

Two new species of Oribatida were found in coastal habitats in South-West Portugal and four remarkable species are redescribed. Chamobates roynortoni sp. n. (Chamobatidae), is described, originating from a coastal bush area of the Ribeira de Aljezur, Algarve. Three remarkable species were recorded in a floodplain alder forest of the Ribeira de Aljezur: Chamobates dentatusMihelčič, 1956, is redescribed and the recently described Oribatula polytuberculata Ermilov et al., 2012, (Oribatulidae) is figured. In the same habitat large populations of Protoribates hakonensis Aoki, 1994, and P. tohokuensis Fujikawa, 2003 (Haplozetidae), originally described from Japan were found for the first time in Europe. The latter species is closely related to P. robustior (Jacot, 1937) from North America. Protozetomimus behanae sp. n. from a floodplain area of Rio Mondego, North Portugal, is described and compared with congeners. The different taxonomic and systematic opinions on the genus in the literature are discussed, resulting in the proposal that Protozetomimus is a distinct genus of Ceratozetidae.

Keywords: Taxonomy, systematics, new species, Chamobatidae, Ceratozetidae, Haplozetidae, Oribatulidae

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Gerd Weigmann
Free University, Institute of Zoology,
Koenigin-Luise-Str. 1–3, 14195 Berlin, Germany;
weigmann@zedat.fu-berlin.de

New records for the Georgian springtail fauna (Collembola)

Barjadze, Sh., H.-J. Schulz, U. Burkhardt, W. E.R. Xylander, R. Djanashvili, M. Salakaia

Title: New records for the Georgian springtail fauna (Collembola)

Abstract

Five species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) new to the Georgian fauna are presented:
Anurida uniformisEntomobrya lanuginosaIsotomurus pseudopalustrisProtaphorura meridiata, and P. subarmata from Adjara Autonomous Republic, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti and Imereti Regions (Western Georgia) and Kakheti Region (Eastern Georgia) collected between 2010 and 2011. An overview of the investigation of this hexapod class in Georgia is given.

Keywords: Collembola, species list, Georgia

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Authors

Shalva Barjadze
Entomology and Biocontrol Research centre, Agricultural University of Georgia,
13th km. of David Aghmashenebeli Alley, 0131, Tbilisi, Georgia;
shalva.barjadze@yahoo.com

Hans-Jürgen Schulz
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
juergen.schulz@senckenberg.de

Ulrich Burkhardt
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
ulrich.burkhardt@senckenberg.de

Willi E.R. Xylander
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
willi.xylander@senckenberg.de

Revaz Djanashvili
Entomology and Biocontrol Research centre, Agricultural University of Georgia,
13th km. of David Aghmashenebeli Alley, 0131, Tbilisi, Georgia

Meri Salakaia
Entomology and Biocontrol Research centre, Agricultural University of Georgia,
13th km. of David Aghmashenebeli Alley, 0131, Tbilisi, Georgia

Dungeraphorura, a new genus of Onychiuridae (Collembola) from East Palaearctic

Gulgenova, A. & M. Potapov

Title: Dungeraphorura, a new genus of Onychiuridae (Collembola) from East Palaearctic

Abstract

Dungeraphorura yaruna sp. n. is described from Transbaikalian region (Russia: Siberia). Dungeraphorura gen. n. combines characters of different tribes, but three key characters, simple vesicles in postantennal organ, presence of d0 seta on head, and 9 distal setae on tibiotarsi, indicate closer relation to the genera of the tribe Thalassaphorurini. The new genus readily differs from other genera of the tribe by the presence of a rudimental furca in form of a cuticular pocket with 2 + 2 setulae. The taxonomical remarks based on the material from East Siberia and Far East of Russia are given to Dungeraphorura martynovae (Dunger, 1978) comb. n., the second species of the genus.

Keywords: new species, Thalassaphorurini, Transbaikalia

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Authors

Ayuna Gulgenova
Buryat State University,
Ulan-Ude 670000, Smolina St. 24 a, Russia

Mikhail Potapov
Moscow Pedagogical State University,
Moscow 129164, Kibalchicha St. 6 b. 5, Russia;
mpnk-abroad@yandex.ru

A new species of Tijucameria from Brazil (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae)

Mendonça, M. C. de & T. C. Silveira

Title: A new species of Tijucameria from Brazil (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae)

Abstract

In the present paper we describe Tijucameria gabrieli n. sp., the second species of the genus Tijucameria, which, until today, is recorded only from Brazil. The new species is sympatric with T. mame Mendonça & Fernandes 2005. Both were found in the same locality, known as nook of ‘Paulo and Virginia’, about 650 m a.s.l. in the Tijuca Forest (Rio de Janeiro Municipality). Specimens of T. gabrieli n. sp. were also found in lowland Atlantic Rainforest (Magé Municipality, Rio de Janeiro State) about 40 km from Tijuca Forest. The new species differs from the other species by a singular set of characters represented by dark blue colouration, absence of mucro, size of sensilla and the number of dorsal microchaetae.

Keywords: Atlantic Rainforest, Pseudachorutini taxonomy, Brazil

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Authors

Maria Cleide de Mendonça
Departamento de Entomologia,
Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n,
São Cristóvão, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;
cleidecollembola@gmail.com

Tatiana Cristina Silveira
Departamento de Entomologia,
Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n,
São Cristóvão, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;

MsC student do Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas,
UNIRIO, Av. Pasteur, 458 CCET/IBIO,
Cep: 22.290-240, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Long term effect of fire, flood and grazing on invertebrates in Australia’s arid zone: Collembola and Formicidae

Greenslade, P., F. Singarayer & G. Horrocks

Title: Long term effect of fire, flood and grazing on invertebrates in Australia’s arid zone: Collembola and Formicidae

Abstract

An extensive fire followed almost immediately by a large scale flood occurred in the semi-arid/arid Olary Creek area in southwest New South Wales. In order to monitor the short and long term effect of these extreme events on vegetation, replicate paired plots were established in the flooded, burnt, and both flooded and burnt landscapes. The plots were 25 m square and one pair of each plot was fenced to exclude grazing animals. We report here on the long-term effect of this disturbance on terrestrial and arboreal invertebrates thirteen years after the events, using Formicidae and Collembola as exemplars. Our results showed that abundance and species richness of both Formicidae and Collembola were more affected by vegetation on the plots and only indirectly by impacts, while the vegetation was determined by the impact history on different land units. Perennial native grasses were favoured by the flooding and rainfall resulting in a high abundance of species in the genus Corynephoria (Collembola: Symphypleona) mainly on swales, while Formicidae species were trapped in highest numbers where the dune vegetation of hummock grassland (Triodia scariosa) was abundant on control plots and plots affected by fire. Grazing had little effect on these invertebrates. These results suggest that optimal management of invertebrate biodiversity in the region needs a mosaic of strategies with both fire and flood providing benefits.

Keywords: Acacia, ants, native grasses, pitfall traps, springtails, sweep samples, Triodia

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Authors

Penelope Greenslade
Centre for Environmental Management, School of Science,
Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ballarat,
Ballarat, Victoria 3553
p.greenslade@ballarat.edu.au

Singarayer Florentine
Centre for Environmental Management, School of Science,
Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ballarat,
Ballarat, Victoria 3553

Greg Horrocks
Australian Centre for Biodiversity, School of Biological Sciences,
Monash University, Melbourne, Vic. 3800

Instructions for authors

Acknowledgements

Issue 84 (2)  August 2012

Proceedings of the 8th Colloquium on Acarology

8th Colloquium on Acarology from 22–24 September 2011 at the Eberhard Karls University of
Tuebingen in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany 
PDF
 
Alberti, G. & A. I. Moreno-Twose
Fine structure of the primary eyes in Heterochthonius gibbus (Oribatida,
Heterochthoniidae) with some general remarks on photosensitive structures in oribatid mites

Heethoff, M. & G. Raspotnig
Investigating chemical communication in oribatid and astigmatid mites in
bioassays – Pitfalls and suggestions

Olomski, R.
Mating and spermatophore morphology of the freshwater mite Brachypoda versicolor
(Müller, 1776) (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Aturidae)

Schmelzle, S., R. A. Norton & M. Heethoff
A morphological comparison of two closely related ptychoid
oribatid mite species: Phthiracarus longulus and P. globosus (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea)

Olomski, R.
The median eye of the freshwater mites (Acari: Parasitengonae, Hydrachnidia) and its fate
in the stem lineage of the Euhydrachnidia, Witte & Olomski 1991

Bergmann, P. & M. Heethoff
Development of the internal reproductive organs in early nymphal stages
of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida) as obtained by synchrotron X-ray
microtomography (SR-μCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

Jagersbacher-Baumann, J. & E. Ebermann
Thanatosis and morphological adaptations in the mite
genera Lamnacarus and Pygmodispus (Acari, Heterostigmatina, Scutacaridae)

Christian, A.
Tick infestation (Ixodes) on the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) – a long-term study

All articles

Fine structure of the primary eyes in Heterochthonius gibbus (Oribatida, Heterochthoniidae) with some general remarks on photosensitive structures in oribatid mites

Alberti, G. & A. I. Moreno-Twose

Title: Fine structure of the primary eyes in Heterochthonius gibbus (Oribatida,
Heterochthoniidae) with some general remarks on photosensitive structures in oribatid mites

Abstract

Heterochthonius gibbus is an oribatid mite which has three eyes located on the prodorsum: an externally unpaired median eye, and a pair of posterolateral eyes. The fine structure of these eyes shows that they consist of a few retinula cells bearing rhabdomeric microvilli. The median eye has two small retinas that are inverted with respect to the cuticular cornea (lens) and each lateral eye has a single retina that is everted. In both types, a thin corneagen layer is located underneath the cornea. The receptor cells are partly surrounded by pigment cells, which are derived from epidermal cells. The location and structure of the eyes, representing typical arachnid ocelli, suggest that they are plesiomorphic structures in contrast to the clear spots and lenticuli occurring on the notogaster of some so called higher Oribatida (Brachypylina). A scenario which could describe the evolution of photosensitivity or photosensitive structures in oribatid mites is presented. Since clear spots and the spectacular lenticuli evidently are apomorphic features, their potential value for phylogenetic systematics is stressed.

Keywords: evolution, lenticulus, naso, secondary eyes, ultrastructure

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Authors

Gerd Alberti
Zoologisches Institut und Museum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald,
Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 11/12, 17489 Greifswald, Germany;
alberti@uni-greifswald.de

Ana Isabel Moreno-Twose
Volkswagen Navarra, S. A.,
A. C. 1311, 31080 Pamplona, Spain

Investigating chemical communication in oribatid and astigmatid mites in bioassays - Pitfalls and suggestions

Michael Heethoff & Günther Raspotnig

Title: Investigating chemical communication in oribatid and astigmatid mites in bioassays – Pitfalls and suggestions

Abstract

A pair of exocrine opisthonotal oil glands from which more than one hundred chemical compounds have been described characterizes the glandulate Oribatida and the Astigmata. While allomonal and pheromonal properties were demonstrated for some of these compounds in some species, the biological function has remained unknown in most cases. The few existing studies on chemical communication used different kinds of experimental designs with bioassays and impregnated filter paper as source for scent dispersal. Like this, the existence of alarm-, aggregation- and sex-pheromones has been demonstrated. Here, we show that most of these studies may have suffered from some shortcomings regarding two parts of the experimental design: i) proper replication and ii) source for scent dispersal. Hence, this contribution has two principle parts: in the first part we focus on bioassay design and the occurrence of pseudoreplication by analyzing published studies with astigmatid and oribatid mites in a literature survey. The second part concerns the source for scent dispersal used in bioassays: we investigated the evaporation dynamics of multi-component-secretions from paper and paper/clay combinations and show that these represent two different principal kinds of sources (instantaneous vs. continuous release of scents). Paper alone is an improper source for long-standing bioassays (i.e. several minutes) because different compounds evaporate with different rates leading to a dramatic change in relative composition. This is much less pronounced in a paper/clay combination.

Keywords: chemical ecology, pseudoreplication, bioassay, emitting source, diffusion, Oribatida, Astigmata

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Authors

Michael Heethoff
Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens University,
Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria;
Institute for Evolution and Ecology,
Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
michael@heethoff.de

Günther Raspotnig
Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens University,
Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Mating and spermatophore morphology of the freshwater mite Brachypoda versicolor (Müller, 1776) (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Aturidae)

Ronald Olomski

Title: Mating and spermatophore morphology of the freshwater mite Brachypoda versicolor (Müller, 1776) (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Aturidae)

Abstract

Morphology of the spermatophore of Brachypoda versicolor (Müller, 1776) has been described for the first time. Males combine two spermatophores into a double spermatophore. Additionally, Halik’s (1955) observations on mating behaviour of this species have been confirmed. In both characteristics, Brachypoda shows obvious congruence with Piona (Pionidae) whose mode of sperm transfer with the aid of a spermatophore cluster is regarded to be more derived (Bücking 2001). The taxonomical classification of Brachypoda as belonging to the family Aturidae (e.g. Viets 1987) cannot be maintained; a close relationship of this genus to the Pionidae is probable.

Keywords: ArrenurusAturus, copulation, pairing, phylogeny

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Ronald Olomski
Gießener Straße 18, 28215 Bremen, Germany;
ronald.olomski@gmx.de

A morphological comparison of two closely related ptychoid oribatid mite species: Phthiracarus longulus and P. globosus (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea)

Schmelzle, S., R. A. Norton & M. Heethoff

Title: A morphological comparison of two closely related ptychoid oribatid mite species: Phthiracarus longulus and P. globosus (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea)

Abstract

We studied exoskeletal and muscular adaptations to ptychoidy in the oribatid mite Phthiracarus globosus (Phthiracaridae, Phthiracaroidea) using synchrotron X-ray microtomography, and compared the results to Phthiracarus longulus, a closely related mite that we investigated earlier. As expected, both species show high similarity in most of the characters investigated, but there were also clear differences: the sensillus groove is more prominent and the bothridial scale is more angular in P. globosus than in P. longulus. The coxisternal retractor first found in P. longulus was also found in P. globosus and therefore could be a synapomorphy for the genus. The number of muscle fibres of the anterior dorsal endosternal muscle (ade), inferior prodorsal retractor (ipr), ventral plate adductor (vpa) and the notogaster lateral compressor (nlc) found in P. globosus is double or even triple that found in P. longulus. Our results suggest that muscle morphology might provide a phylogenetically informative set of characters for oribatid mite systematics, when more data are available.

Keywords: Synchrotron X-ray microtomography, SR-μCT, Ptychoidy, Phthiracaridae, Box mite, Predator defence

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Authors

Sebastian Schmelzle
Universität Tübingen, Institut für Evolution und Ökologie,
Abteilung Evolutionsbiologie der Invertebraten,
Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tübingen, Germany;
schmelzle@oribatida.com

Roy A. Norton
State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry,
1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse NY 13210, USA

Michael Heethoff
Universität Tübingen, Institut für Evolution und Ökologie,
Abteilung Evolutionsbiologie der Invertebraten,
Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tübingen, Germany

The median eye of the freshwater mites (Acari: Parasitengonae, Hydrachnidia) and its fate in the stem lineage of the Euhydrachnidia, Witte & Olomski 1991

Olomski, R.

Title: The median eye of the freshwater mites (Acari: Parasitengonae, Hydrachnidia) and its fate in the stem lineage of the Euhydrachnidia, Witte & Olomski 1991

Abstract

The stem species of freshwater mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) is generally regarded to be provided with a single median eye which is located below the dorsal cuticle of the prosoma. This character state has been reported from members of the superfamilies Hydrachnoidea, ‘Hydryphantoidea’ and ‘Lebertioidea’. There have been no reports of a median eye from the other five superfamilies until now. In this study, it is shown by histological methods and observations on living specimens: 
1.the presence of a single median eye in two other superfamilies, in Stygothrombioidea(Stygothrombium chappuisi)
and Eylaoidea (Limnochares aquatica),
2. the presence of a pair of ocelli situated anteromedially between the lateral eyes in those species of the euhydrachnidian
superfamilies that lack an unpaired median eye, in ‘Hydryphantoidea’(Hydrodroma despiciens), ‘Lebertioidea’
(Lebertia inaequalis), ‘Hygrobatoidea’ (Limnesia maculataHygrobates longipalpisUnionicola crassipesPiona carnea)
and ‘Arrenuroidea’ (Arrenurus globatorA. cuspidator).
The detection of the median eye in the early derived Stygothrombium and Limnochares confirms the hypothesis that the stem species of the Hydrachnidia was provided with a single unpaired median eye situated dorsally on its prosoma. Additionally, it is assumed that the pair of ocelli in later derived species of the Euhydrachnidia evolved from the median eye by division and separation.

Keywords: evolution, frontal eye, frontal organ, histology, water mites

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Ronald Olomski
Gießener Straße 18, 28215 Bremen, Germany
ronald.olomski@gmx.de

 

Development of the internal reproductive organs in early nymphal stages of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida) as obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-μCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

Bergmann, P. & M. Heethoff

Title: Development of the internal reproductive organs in early nymphal stages
of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida) as obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-μCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

Abstract

We studied the development of the internal reproductive organs in juvenile stages of Archegozetes longisetosus. 3D-renderings of organs were obtained from synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-μCT). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to obtain cytological details. The reproductive organs develop from an unpaired, ventral mass of mesodermal tissue in the larva, and development progresses continuously and largely independent from the development of other organs or moltings. Volume increase of the ovary and a growing number of germ cells indicate proliferation of oogonia in the deutonymph. The oviducts develop from dorso-lateral extensions of mesodermal somatic tissue.

Keywords: Actinotrichida, ovary, oviduct, 3D-rendering, premeiotic mitoses

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Authors

Paavo Bergmann
Institute for Evolution and Ecology,
Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
bergmann_paavo@yahoo.de

Michael Heethoff
Institute for Evolution and Ecology,
Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
michael@heethoff.de

Thanatosis and morphological adaptations in the mite genera Lamnacarus and Pygmodispus (Acari, Heterostigmatina, Scutacaridae)

Jagersbacher-Baumann, J. & E. Ebermann

Title: Thanatosis and morphological adaptations in the mite
genera Lamnacarus and Pygmodispus (Acari, Heterostigmatina, Scutacaridae)

Abstract

In the mite family Scutacaridae, several species belonging to different genera show thanatosis or ‘playing dead’ behaviour. Some of them possess morphological features that are obviously connected with this behaviour. We compared the morphological adaptations to thanatosis in females of Lamnacarus ornatus Balogh and Mahunka, 1963 to those in Pygmodispus (Allodispuspavidus Ebermann, 1997. To exhibit no point of attack to predators, the mites must retract their legs and cover them with adapted structures. Although the principles of the morphological adaptations to thanatosis are similar in P. (A.pavidus and L. ornatus, there are differences in their completion.

Keywords: Thanatosis, morphological adaptations, Scutacaridae, Pygmodispus pavidusLamnacarus ornatus

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Authors

Julia Jagersbacher-Baumann
Institut für Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz,
Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Ernst Ebermann
Institut für Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz,
Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria
ernst.ebermann@uni-graz.at

Tick infestation (Ixodes) on the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) – a long-term study

Christian, A. 

Title: Tick infestation (Ixodes) on the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) – a long-term study

Abstract

Over a period of 21 years, 541 otters mostly killed on the roads were investigated. Three species of ticks (Ixodes hexagonus,
I. canisugaI. ricinus) were found to infest the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Germany. The most common tick species on the otters was I. hexagonus. The prevalence (= infestation extensity; proportion of infested animals) was 8.8%. The average infestation intensity (number of ticks per infested animal) was 7.9 ticks per infested otter. Two species of ticks were only found on two otters. The highest infestation intensity of I. hexagonus found on one otter was 72 larvae plus 3 nymphs and 2 females. The average infestation intensity by the stages of I. hexagonus was 2.0 females, 4.9 nymphs and 8.3 larvae per infested otter. In Upper Lusatia, Germany, the otter has been proven to be a frequent host for I. hexagonus. The common wood tick, I. ricinus, parasitized on only one otter.

Keywords: ticks, ectoparasites, Ixodes hexagonusIxodes ricinus, Otter, Lutra lutra, Germany

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Axel Christian
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History,
P.O.Box 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany;
axel.christian@senckenberg.de

Issue 84 (1)  April 2012

Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola – Capbryinae & Entomobryini – 
with 813 figures
 

 

All articles

Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola – Capbryinae & Entomobryini – with 813 figures

Introduction

This volume of the ‘Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola’ is a review of the subfamily Capbryinae and the tribe Entomobryini belonging to the family Entomobryidae. We have studied up to 13.000 specimens belonging to 270 species out of 11 genera. They have been described and drawn, taking into account older sources as well as the recent literature. Geographically, arctic species are included as well as species from the Chinese-Japanese region, the Himalaya and North Africa.
The specimens examined come from many national museums, universities and scientific institutions around the world and from some private collections.
For the study and description of each species, we have tried to use the types. For about 40% of all cases this was not possible due to lack of response from the institutions where the types are stored, sometimes the types have been lost or they are in poor condition. In these situations, we have tried to obtain material from sites close to the type locality or recent descriptions of the same species. In some occasions we had to recuperate dried specimens with a methodology described below. The types of older material were often very difficult to examine; frequently it was necessary to remount them, but this was not always possible, although some museums have given the permission to do so.
For many species of the family Entomobryidae, frequently erroneous citations have been published over the years. This was because the species identification was based on the colour pattern, but there is a great range of variation in some widespread species, and many other species are known only from the type locality.
For these reasons the information given on distribution, biology and ecology must be taken with some reservation, except for those species that are well-known and widely distributed. This book is not intended as a collection of papers or extensive descriptions about each of the species. I rather tried to provide an original work with the full description of the chaetotaxy of the species (if possible), extending the enormous work done by Szept ycki (1979) on the chaetotaxy of some species to all species studied in this book. However, I attempted to simplify the character pattern he proposed, and have taken into account only some of the segments and areas on the tergites that Szeptycki had introduced.
During my study of the specimens, several new species were discovered. These have been described and published in scientific journals over the years. These papers were prepared in cooperation with different researchers. E. Baquero, disciple and friend, has always been one of the main authors. From papers published together I have taken some figures that I can use as one of the authors involved. Throughout the years in which this book has taken shape, E. Baquero has been a consultant required to comment or confirm my observations, however I am responsible and author of all the figures in this book if no other information is given.
The review ends with species published by the end of 2011.

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Rafael Jordana
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain;
rjordana@unav.es