Soil Organisms

2013 Issues

Issue 85 (3)  December 2013

Collembola, Hymenoptera, Nematoda and Oribatida

Gerd Weigmann
Ecology and biogeography of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal

Peter Shaw, Christiana Faria & Brent Emerson
Updating taxonomic biogeography in the light of new methods – examples from the Collembola

Enrique Baquero, Rafael Jordana & Gurupada Mandal
Redescription of Baijal’s Entomobrya species from Indian Himalayan Region (Collembola, Entomobryidae)

Dieter Sturhan
On morphology and habitat of Longidorus andalusicus Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al., 2013 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) recovered in the North Frisian wadden sea island Hooge, Germany

Bernhard Seifert
Hypononera ergatandria (Forel, 1893) – a cosmopolitan tramp species different from H. punctatissima (Roger, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

Ayuna Gulgenova & Mikahil Potapov
New ‘oligopseudocellar’ Protaphorura species (Collembola: Onychiuridae) from East Palaearctic

Stephan Jänsch, Louise Steffens, Hubert Höfer, Franz Horak, Martina Roß-Nickoll,
David Russell, Ulrich Burkhardt, Andreas Toschki & Jörg Römbke
State of knowledge of earthworm communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality

+ Supplementary Information is linked to the online version of the paper at www.soil-organisms.org

Thanks to the referees

All articles

Ecology and biogeography of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal

Gerd Weigmann

Title: Ecology and biogeography of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the coastal region of Portugal

Abstract

The oribatid mite populations in the soils of typical habitat types at the Ribeira de Aljezur, Western Algarve in Portugal, are presented with the main objective to detect a synecological structure in relation to habitat types. Five mite communities can be discriminated by means of a correspondence analysis and of the specific abundance values in the habitats: Communities in (1) salt marsh sites in the estuary river zone, (2) a dune meadow, (3) a sandy dune area with low shrubs, (4) coastal bush-land on rocky substrate, (5) a floodplain forest in the limnic river zone. The communities on dune and rocky substrates are less distinct. Ecological preferences and biogeographical distributions of all species are presented and discussed. This actual publication contributes 30 further species, recorded in Portugal for the first time. Altogether, the Portuguese oribatid fauna includes 253 documented species now. From the 28 Iberian species of the current contribution, 14 species are endemic for Portugal. Ten of these species are described originally from the presented material from the area of Ribeiro de Aljezur.

Keywords: Ecology | biogeography | correspondence analysis | Acari

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Gerd Weigmann
Free University, Institute of Zoology,
Königin-Luise-Str. 1–3, 14195 Berlin, Germany;
weigmann@zedat.fu-berlin.de

Updating taxonomic biogeography in the light of new methods – examples from the Collembola

Peter Shaw, Christiana Faria & Brent Emerson

Title: Updating taxonomic biogeography in the light of new methods – examples from the Collembola

Abstract

The aim of this article is to review the consequences of advances in molecular genetics for researchers of Collembola biogeography. Gene sequence data have generally confirmed existing high-level taxonomy, but complicated species-level taxonomy by uncovering extensive cryptic diversity. Several commonly recorded European Collembola ‘species’ have proved to be complexes of closely related taxa, reducing the value of many older (pre-1990) records to near-zero. It seems likely that many more cryptic species of Collembola remain to be uncovered, even in well studied areas in Europe. The inevitable proliferation of genetically defined ‘species’ will be awkward to integrate into existing databases, which are based on morphospecies. Eventually the results will transform our understanding of Collembola biodiversity, since molecular data contain greatly more information, notably estimates of divergence times. In ancient and relatively pristine ecosystems (e.g. Antarctica, oceanic islands) genetic data can be used to show both extreme isolation of endemics (pre-dating ice ages) and the arrival of European/North American invasives. Collembola from the genus Lepidocyrtus in several very different areas show patterns of intra-specific divergence dated in the millions of years, a pattern likely to be repeated in other genera.
An exciting approach to speeding up these genetic studies comes from the advent of high throughput pyrosequencing technology, which already allows mass identification of mixed life forms from clustering then sequencing DNA amplicons (‘metabarcoding’), raising the possibility of automating the identification of bulked soil faunal extracts. A trial of this using soil extracts from Tenerife identified an apparent endemic Friesea species, along with mainland invasive species. These next generation techniques rely on Molecular Taxonomic units (MOTUs), identified purely by sequence analysis (usually of mtCOI), so vigilance will always be needed against the spurious identification of sequence artefacts such as nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes (NUMTS). A new risk of relying simply on high throughput sequence analysis is the possibility of inventing non-existent ‘species’ from irrelevant DNA.

Keywords: phylobetageography | biodiversity | barcoding | mtCOI | endemism

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Authors:

Peter Shaw
University of Roehampton, Centre for Research in Ecology,
Whitelands College, Holybourne Ave., London SW15 4JD, UK;
p.shaw@roehampton.ac.uk

Christiana Faria
School of Biological Sciences,
Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK

Brent Emerson
School of Biological Sciences,
Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK;
Present Address:
Island Ecology and evolution group, IPNA-CSIC, C/Astrofisico Franciso Sánchez 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

Redescription of Baijal’s Entomobrya species from Indian Himalayan Region (Collembola, Entomobryidae)

Enrique Baquero, Rafael Jordana & Gurupada Mandal

Title: Redescription of Baijal’s Entomobrya species from Indian Himalayan Region (Collembola, Entomobryidae)

Abstract

During preparation of ‘Capbryinae & Entomobryini’ (Jordana 2012) for the series Synopses on Palaearctic Collembola (Volume 7, Part 1), many specimens were studied from museums within and outside the study area. Even so some important collections could either not be found or borrowed at the time. One was the Baijal’s collection, which was rediscovered in the Zoological Survey of India. In the present paper we present the results of our examination of paratypes of the four species of Entomobryadescribed by this author from the Indian Himalayan region. The original descriptions of these species were limited but adequate for that time, and the age of the specimens did not allow observation of all the details necessary for a complete description as currently required, including macrochaetotaxy. Here descriptions of these species are given in more detail , especially regarding the distribution of the macrochaetotaxy, currently considered necessary for the identification of species. The species studied are: Entomobrya kultinalensis Baijal, 1958, Entomobrya longisticta Baijal, 1958, Entomobrya nigrita Baijal, 1958 and Entomobrya rohtangensis Baijal, 1958.

Keywords: original type material | chaetotaxy | paratypes

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Authors:

Enrique Baquero
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain;
ebaquero@unav.es

Rafael Jordana
Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra,
Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain

Gurupada Mandal
Zoological Survey of India,
Government of India, 535, M Block, New Alipore, 700053 Kolkata, India

On morphology and habitat of Longidorus andalusicus Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al., 2013 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) recovered in the North Frisian wadden sea island Hooge, Germany 

Dieter Sturhan

Title: On morphology and habitat of Longidorus andalusicus Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al., 2013 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) recovered in the North Frisian wadden sea island Hooge, Germany 

Abstract

Longidorus population, recovered in the small island Hooge close to the coast of the German Bight in 1993 for the first time, had initially been identified as a representative of a still undescribed species. Morphological studies and molecular analyses now revealed species identity with Longidorus andalusicus recently described from southern Spain. The Hooge population occurred in the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides and other halophilic plants at a site often inundated by sea water, together with brackish water and marine nematodes. Morphological characters supplementing the original description of L. andalusicus are presented and an emended species diagnosis is proposed. The potential origin of the species and the means of dispersal to northern Europe are discussed.

Keywords: Biogeography | dispersal | Halimione portulacoides | saline soil | North Sea

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Dieter Sturhan
Arnethstr. 13D, 48159 Münster, Germany, and c/o Julius Kühn-Institut,
Toppheideweg 88, 48161 Münster, Germany;
SturhanDH@web.de

Hypononera ergatandria (Forel, 1893) – a cosmopolitan tramp species different from H. punctatissima (Roger, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Bernhard Seifert

Title: Hypononera ergatandria (Forel, 1893) – a cosmopolitan tramp species different from H. punctatissima (Roger, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Abstract

Strong evidence is presented that the ponerine tramp ants frequently found in hothouses around the globe and named for many decades Hypoponera punctatissima consist of two clearly separable species: Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger, 1859) and H. ergatandria (Forel, 1893). Exploratory data analyses using eleven morphometric characters were performed in a total of 95 samples with 213 specimens from the worldwide range. They showed that both species are clearly separable in ergatoid males, gynomorphic females, workers and ergatoid females. Hierarchical NC-Ward clustering, non-hierarchical NC-K-Means clustering, NC-NMDS-K-Means ordination and principal component analysis provided identical classifications with a striking clustering structure. A linear discriminant analysis confirmed the results of these exploratory data analyses by 100 % and allocated each of the 27 type specimen to either cluster with posterior probabilities of p > 0.989. As junior synonyms of Hypoponera punctatissima(Roger, 1859) were established by type investigation: Hypoponera androgyna (Roger, 1859), Hypoponera tarda (Charsley, 1877), Hypoponera punctatissima r. jugata (Forel, 1892) and Hypoponera punctatissima var. exacta (Santschi, 1923). As junior synonyms of Hypoponera ergatandria (Forel, 1893) were established by type investigation: Hypoponera kalakauae (Forel, 1899), Hypoponera punctatissima var. schauinslandi (Emery, 1899), Hypoponera dulcis var. aemula (Santschi, 1911) and Hypoponera ergatandria subsp. bondroiti (Forel, 1911). Both species are highly sympatric in Europe with one known example to occur in the same greenhouse. Not a single nest sample in the global material contained workers of both H. punctatissima and H. ergatandriaand there was also no nest sample containing conflicting ergatoid males or gynomorphic females. The species obviously maintain separate reproductive cycles under conditions of a broadly sympatric occurrence and developed significant differences in phenology of sexual development, dispersal of alate gynes, habitat selection in the temperate zone and global distribution. These data clearly rebut the recent judgement of Bolton & Fisher (2011) ‘…that the discriminant functions applied by Seifert (2004) do not isolate discrete species, but rather indicate allopatric populations of the same species, or even different eco morphs of a single species.’ A simple method providing a complete separation of the two species and taking a trained investigator three minutes of working time is presented for males, workers, ergatomorphic females and gynomorphs.

Keywords: sibling species | tramp species | morphometrics | allometric growth | exploratory data analysis | nest centroid clustering

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Bernhard Seifert
Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz,
Am Museum 1, 02826 Görlitz, Germany;
bernhard.seifert@senckenberg.de

 

New ‘oligopseudocellar’ Protaphorura species (Collembola: Onychiuridae) from East Palaearctic

Ayuna Gulgenova & Mikahil Potapov

Title: New ‘oligopseudocellar’ Protaphorura species (Collembola: Onychiuridae) from East Palaearctic

Abstract

Four new species of the genus Protaphorura (P. dorzhievi sp. n., P. buryatica sp. n., P. dzherga sp. n., and P. uniparis sp. n.) with reduced number (0–1–2) of pseudocelli on the thoracic tergites are described from Buryatia (Russia, East Siberia). P. jacuticaMartynova, 1976 is redescribed based on type and newly collected material. The key to Asiatic species with pseudocellar formula 0–1–2 on thorax is given.

Keywords: Buryatia | Transbaikalia | springtails | key to species | pseudocelli

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Authors:

Mikhail Potapov
Moscow Pedagogical State University,
Moscow 129164, Kibalchicha St. 6 b. 5, Russia;
mpnk-abroad@yandex.ru

Ayuna Gulgenova
Buryat State University,
Ulan-Ude 670000, Smolina St. 24 a, Russia

State of knowledge of earthworm communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality

Stephan Jänsch, Louise Steffens, Hubert Höfer, Franz Horak, Martina Roß-Nickoll, David Russell, Ulrich Burkhardt, Andreas Toschki & Jörg Römbke

Title: State of knowledge of earthworm communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality

Abstract

Within a project aiming to improve the preconditions for the protection of the habitat function of soils in Germany, the database Bo-Info was established, in which soil-biological data from permanent soil monitoring sites of several German states as well as from the literature was compiled. Soil-biological data _mce_on the occurrence and abundance of earthworms were analysed with respect to their distribution and relation to site (habitat type, land use) and soil properties (pH, texture, organic matter). Reliable data for earthworms were available from 294 sites. In total, 32 species (all species known to occur in Germany) were present in the database, 10 of which were very common. Ecological preferences regarding land use, pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and texture were derived for these 10 species. The occurrence of earthworms at the species and ecological-group level is determined by land use and soil pH value and less by soil texture. A clear distinction between epigeic species on the one hand and endogeic and anecic species on the other hand was found regarding SOM. Earthworm communities of habitat types representing the four major land use types (grassland, crop sites, deciduous and coniferous forests) clearly differed. Using three examples from different land use forms, typical species could be identified at the next sub division level of habitat types, provided a sufficient number of data was available. As a result, qualitative expectation (= reference) values (species richness and composition) are proposed for the most important habitat types (e.g. different types of crop sites, grassland and coniferous forests). Due to their ecological relevance, the use of earthworms for soil biological site classification and assessment is recommended.

Keywords: Biogeography | habitat function | Lumbricidae | Oligochaeta | permanent soil monitoring sites | reference system

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suppl.

Authors:

Stephan Jänsch
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany
s-jaensch@ect.de

Louise Steffens
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

Hubert Höfer
State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe,
Dept. Biosciences, Erbprinzenstr. 13, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany

Franz Horak
State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe,
Dept. Biosciences, Erbprinzenstr. 13, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany

Martina Roß-Nickoll
RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research,
Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany

David Russell
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Dept. Soil Zoology,
P.O. Box 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

 
Ulrich Burkhardt
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Dept. Soil Zoology,
P.O. Box 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Andreas Toschki
gaiac Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment,
Kackertstr. 10, 52072 Aachen, Germany

Jörg Römbke
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany;
Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F,
Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Thanks to the referees

Issue 85 (2)  August 2013

Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Enchtraeidaee
August 2012 Coimbra, Portugal
Newsletter on Enchytraeidae No. 13

Preface

Obituary

Sine Thrane Johannesen, Martin Holmstrup & Jesper Givskov Sørensen
High temperature tolerance and heat hardening ability in Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837 (Oligochaeta) show no interaction with lipophilic organic pollutants

Jiří Schlaghamerský
Enchytraeid assemblages (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of two old growth forests in the Porcupine Mountains (Michigan, USA)

Jiří Schlaghamerský
The enchytraeid assemblage (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of a Sandhill prairie site in Nebraska, USA

Cornelia Bandow, Anja Coors & Jörg Römbke
Enchytraeus bigeminus (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) as a new candidate for ecotoxicological laboratory tests

Rüdiger M. Schmelz & Rut Collado
‚Cejkaian tubules‘ in the posterior midgut of terrestrial Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta)

Jörg Römbke, Stephan Jänsch, Hubert Höfer, Franz Horak, Martina Roß-Nickoll,
David Russell, Ulrich Burkhardt & Andreas Toschki
State of knowledge of enchytraeid communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality assessment

All articles

High temperature tolerance and heat hardening ability in Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837 (Oligochaeta) show no interaction with lipophilic organic pollutants

Sine Thrane Johannesen, Martin Holmstrup & Jesper Givskov Sørensen

Title: High temperature tolerance and heat hardening ability in Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837 (Oligochaeta) show no interaction with lipophilic organic pollutants

Abstract

High temperature stress poses various direct challenges for organisms on earth, but also indirectly affects the simultaneous tolerance to other stress factors. In this study we examined the heat tolerance, heat hardening ability and possible interactions between chemical stress and elevated temperatures in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus. Specimens of E. albidus were exposed to chemicals and high temperature stress separately, after which they were exposed to a combination of the two stressors to test for a possible interaction. The chemicals used in this study were 4-nonylphenol and phenanthrene. Both of these chemicals reach the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, and both have the potential to interact with elevated temperatures through effects on the cell membrane. We carried out dose response experiments, including concentrations of the chemicals and high temperatures, having a significant negative effect on survival, however there was no interaction between the two types of stressors. Additionally we found that heat hardening improved survival significantly, but none of the chemicals had an effect on E. albidus’ ability to heat harden. Thus, we found no evidence for the hypothesized negative interaction between increasing temperature and pollution with the chemicals used here.

Keywords: Phenanthrene | Nonylphenol | Synergism | Thermal tolerance | Combination stress

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Authors:

Sine Thrane Johannesen
Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience,
Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark

Martin Holmstrup
Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience,
Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark

Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience,
Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
jgs@dmu.dk

Enchytraeid assemblages (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of two old growth forests in the Porcupine Mountains (Michigan, USA)

Jiří Schlaghamerský

Title: Enchytraeid assemblages (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of two old growth forests in the Porcupine Mountains (Michigan, USA)

Abstract

Very little is known about enchytraeid assemblages in North American soils. It is difficult to assess to what extent present-day assemblages include introduced species that originally did not occur on the continent. Old growth forests are among the few preserved original habitats that provide the opportunity to study a presumably pristine soil fauna. In May 2011 soil samples were taken in two old growth forest stands on Podzols (Spodosols) in the Porcupine Mountains (Michigan, USA) differing in elevation, soil pH and stand composition (sugar maple vs. hemlock-sugar maple). Enchytraeids were extracted by the wet funnel method and identified alive. Species composition and representation, vertical distribution and density were assessed. In the maple stand, mean enchytraeid density was 32,100 ± 9,000 individuals/m2 (± SE), 74 % of individuals being present in the upper 3 cm of soil. Six enchytraeid taxa were present, in four cases their identity was ascertained to species level. Cognettia sphagnetorum was predominant, comprising at least 82 % of all individuals. The occurrence of C. sphagnetorum in North America had been hitherto known only from a tentative record from Florida. In the hemlock-sugar maple stand (with less acidic soil), mean enchytraeid density was 35,900 ± 7,300 ind./m2 (± SE) and the vertical distribution was more even. Also the representation of the 8 taxa identified was more even than in the maple stand. The genus Marionina was dominant (63 % of all individuals) and represented by 1 or 2 species. M. cf. minutissima is reported for the first time from North America, but may also represent a new species.

Keywords: Enchytraeidae | community structure | forests | old growth | North America

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Jiří Schlaghamerský
Masaryk University, Faculty of Science,
Department of Botany and Zoology,
Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic;
jiris@sci.muni.cz

The enchytraeid assemblage (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of a Sandhill prairie site in Nebraska, USA

Jiří Schlaghamerský

Title: The enchytraeid assemblage (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of a Sandhill prairie site in Nebraska, USA

Abstract

Hitherto the enchytraeid fauna of North American prairie and other types of grassland remains unknown. In March 2011 soil samples were taken in a Sandhill prairie habitat used as rangeland, close to Grand Island, Nebraska. Enchytraeids were extracted by the wet funnel method and identified alive. The total enchytraeid density was 3400 ± 800 individuals/m2 (± SE); 70 % of the individuals were present in the upper 3 cm of soil (sampling depth: 12 cm). The assemblage consisted of at least six species, the identity of four could be ascertained. Bryodrilus librus (Nielsen & Christensen, 1959) was predominant, followed by Fridericia bulboides Nielsen & Christensen, 1959. For B. librus this is the southern-most reported locality within its known range. Also present was Enchytraeus dichaetus Schmelz & Collado, 2010, the occurrence of which in North America had been published once before from Canada without any details on its locality. The rather poor assemblage might be the result of a harsh climate and drought-sensitive sandy soil.

Keywords: Enchytraeidae | community structure | grassland | North America soil | soil fauna

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Jiří Schlaghamerský
Masaryk University, Faculty of Science,
Department of Botany and Zoology,
Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic;
jiris@sci.muni.cz

Enchytraeus bigeminus (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) as a new candidate for ecotoxicological laboratory tests

Cornelia Bandow, Anja Coors & Jörg Römbke

Title: Enchytraeus bigeminus (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) as a new candidate for ecotoxicological laboratory tests

Abstract

In enchytraeid reproduction tests lambda-cyhalothrin and pyrimethanil were examined under three different soil moisture levels (30, 50 and 70 % of the soil water holding capacity). The tests were performed with Enchytraeus bigeminus Nielsen & Christensen, 1963, a species that differs from other enchytraeid test species by its asexual mode of reproduction (fragmentation). The effect of chemical stressors depended on the soil moisture content. A higher toxicity was observed in soil with lower moisture levels. For lambda-cyhalothrin, the 21-day EC50 values for reproduction at the three levels of soil moisture were calculated to be 1.33, 3.79 and 4.75 mg active substance/kg dry weight soil, respectively. For pyrimethanil the values were 435, 499 and 829 mg active substance/kg dry weight soil. Apart from the evaluation of the combined effects of chemical stress and soil moisture, the appropriateness of the fragmenting test species Enchytraeus bigeminus was assessed. E. bigeminus tolerated temperature and pH variations, allowed obtaining reliable concentration-response relationships and was easy to handle and to culture in the laboratory. Hence this fragmenting species is considered to be suitable as an additional test species in ecotoxicological standard tests.

Keywords: pyrimethanil | lambda-cyhalothrin | Clitellata | potworms | reproduction test | OECD

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Authors:

Cornelia Bandow
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F,
Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Goethe University Frankfurt, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology,
Max-von-Laue-Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany;
C.Bandow@ect.de

Anja Coors
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F,
Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Jörg Römbke
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F,
Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany

'Cejkaian tubules' in the posterior midgut of terrestrial Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta)

Rüdiger M. Schmelz & Rut Collado

Title: ‚Cejkaian tubules‘ in the posterior midgut of terrestrial Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta)

Abstract

More than one hundred years ago, Bohumil Čejka described peculiar elongate tubules in the posterior region of the intestine of Hepatogaster birulae, a new terrestrial enchytraeid species collected in North-East Siberia. The tubules have no cilia but a proper epithelium and they run parallel to the longitudinal axis of the intestine over several segments, inside the intestinal epithelium but in close contact with the blood sinus. The tubules end blindly anteriorly and with a porus to the intestinal lumen posteriorly. The number of tubules increases from posterior to anterior due to bifurcations, and their diameter decreases. Čejka hypothesized that these tubules are glands that provide secretions for the final process of digestion or that aid in the egestion of faeces. He found them only in one species, Hepatogaster birulae, which was later synonymized with Henlea ochracea. In recent years we screened a large number of terrestrial enchytraeids in vivo and found these peculiar tubules in two further species of Henlea, in one species of Oconnorella and in thirteen species of Fridericia. The pores of these tubules are always located near the transition from midgut to hindgut. The tubules vary among species in extent and branching pattern, and several types can be distinguished. We suggest naming the structures ‘Cejkaian tubules’ in honour and memory of the finder, whose last publication dates from 1914. ‘Cejkaian tubules’ were not found in every species of Henlea and Fridericia, and they seem to be absent in other genera, but techniques other than in vivo light microscopy are required to confirm their absence with certainty. As to their function, we hypothesize the opposite of Čejka, not secretion but resorption, possibly of water, similar to the colon in tetrapod vertebrates.

Keywords: Intestine | invertebrates | Clitellata | Annelida | live investigation

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Authors: 

Rüdiger M. Schmelz
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

Universidad de A Coruña, Fac. Ciencias,
Dep. Biología Animal, Biol. Vegetal, y Ecología,
Rua da Fraga 10, 15008 A Coruña, Spain;
rmschmelz@gmail.com

Rut Collado
Universidad de A Coruña, Fac. Ciencias,
Dep. Biología Animal, Biol. Vegetal, y Ecología,
Rua da Fraga 10, 15008 A Coruña, Spain;

State of knowledge of enchytraeid communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality assessment

Jörg Römbke, Stephan Jänsch, Hubert Höfer, Franz Horak, Martina Roß-Nickoll, David Russell, Ulrich Burkhardt & Andreas Toschki

Title: State of knowledge of enchytraeid communities in German soils as a basis for biological soil quality assessment

Abstract

Within a project aiming to improve the preconditions for the protection of the habitat function of soils in Germany, the database ‘Bo-Info’ was established. In this database soil biological data from permanent soil monitoring sites of several German states as well as from the literature were compiled. Soil biological data on the abundance and dominance of Enchytraeidae (potworms) were analysed with respect to their distribution, site characteristics (habitat type, land use) and soil properties (pH, texture, organic matter). Reliable data for potworms were available from 133 of 208 sites. In total, 96 species of the 122 species known to occur in Germany were present in the database, 24 of which were very common. Ecological preferences regarding land use, pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil texture were derived for these 24 plus another 16 species typical for specific habitat types. The occurrence of enchytraeids at the species and ecological-group level was most strongly determined by land use and pH value and less by soil texture. A distinction between litter and soil dwelling species was found regarding SOM. Enchytraeid communities of habitat types representing the four major land use types (grassland, arable land, deciduous and coniferous forests) clearly differed. Using three examples from different land use forms, typical species could be identified at the second level of detail of habitat types, given a sufficient number of data. As a result, qualitative expectation (= reference) values for species richness and composition are proposed for the most important habitat types (e.g. different types of arable land, grassland and coniferous forests). The data basis regarding taxonomy, biogeography and ecology of German enchytraeids clearly needs to be enlarged. Due to their ecological relevance, the use of enchytraeids for soil biological site classification and assessment is recommended.

Keywords: Biogeography | habitat function | Enchytraeidae | permanent soil monitoring sites | reference system | Oligochaeta | Clitellata

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suppl.

Authors: 

Jörg Römbke
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F,
Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
j-roembke@ect.de

Stephan Jänsch
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Böttgerstrasse 2–14, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany

Hubert Höfer
State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe,
Dept. Biosciences, Erbprinzenstr. 13, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany

Franz Horak
State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe,
Dept. Biosciences, Erbprinzenstr. 13, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany

Martina Roß-Nickoll
RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research,
Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany

David Russell
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Dept. Soil Zoology,
P.O. Box 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Ulrich Burkhardt
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Dept. Soil Zoology,
P.O. Box 300154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Andreas Toschki
gaiac Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment,
Kackertstr. 10, 52072 Aachen, Germany

Issue 85 (1)  April 2013

Proceedings of the XIII International Colloquium on Apterygota

Preface

Luis F. Mendes & Georg Ponair
Description of two new fossil Zygentoma from Mexico and Dominican Republic 

Luis F. Mendes & Jörg Wunderlich
New data on thysanurans preserved in Burmese amber (Microcoryphia and Zygentoma lnsecta)

Mª Jose Notario-Munoz, Rafael Molero-Baltanas, Carmen Bach de Roca &
Miquel Gaju-Ricart
New data on the distribution and biology of Machlaides tenuicornis Stach,1930 (Microcoryphia: Meinertellidae) in the lberian Peninsula (western Palaearctic)

Carmen Bach de Roca, Pietro-Paolo Fanciulli, Francesco Cicconardi,
Rafael Molero-Baltanás & Miguel Gaju-Ricart
Description of a new genus and a new species of Machilidae (Insecta: Microcoryphia) from Turkey 

Gabriel C. Oueiroz, Tatiana C. Da Silveira & Maria Cleide De Mendonça
New species of Neotropiella Handschin, 1942 (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Brazil 

Xin Sun, Louis Deharveng, Anne Bedos, Donghui Wu & Jian-Xiu Chen
Onychiuridae of China: species versus generic diversity along a latitudinal gradient

Thomas Bolger, Joan Kenny & Julio Arroyo
The Collembola fauna of lrish forests – a comparison between forest type and microhabitats within the forests

Peter Shaw
The use of inert pads to study the Collembola of suspended soils

All articles

Description of two new fossil Zygentoma from Mexico and Dominican Republic

Luis F. Mendes & Georg Ponair

Title: Description of two new fossil Zygentoma from Mexico and Dominican Republic

Abstract

Two new in amber preserved Zygentoma are described, namely Protolepisma tainicum gen. n. sp. n. (Lepismatidae) from the Dominican Republic of Hispaniola Island, and Paleograssiella chiapanicum gen. n. sp. n. (Nicoletiidae) from the Chiapas State of Mexico. Dated at approximately 20–30 MY old, they represent, respectively, the second fossil Lepismatidae known from the Dominican deposits and the first fossil Nicoletiidae (Atelurinae) and only fossil Zygentoma known from Mexico.

Keywords: Silverfish | new genera | Hispaniola | Mexico | Miocene-Oligocene

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Authors:

Luis F. Mendes
Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT),
Jardim Botânico Tropical / Zoologia.
R. da Junqueira, 14, 1300-343 Lisboa, Portugal;
luis.mendes@iict.pt

George Poinar Jr.
Oregon State University, Department of Zoology. Corvallis, OR 97331, USA

New data on thysanurans preserved in Burmese amber (Microcoryphia and Zygentoma lnsecta)

Luis F. Mendes & Jörg Wunderlich

Title: New data on thysanurans preserved in Burmese amber (Microcoryphia and Zygentoma lnsecta)

Abstract

One undeterminable Microcoryphia specimen preserved in burmite, almost certainly belonging to the genus em>Macropsontus, is reported. One new Lepismatidae (Zygentoma), Cretolepisma kachinicum gen. n. sp. n., preserved in the same ca. 100 MY old Albian-Cenomanian amber from Myanmar, is described based upon one female. It is compared with the recent genera in the nominate subfamily as well as with Burmalepisma cretacicum Mendes & Poinar, 2008, the only other species of Zygentoma known to date from the same deposits. Some paleogeographical and phylogenetic data are discussed and one new combination is proposed.

Keywords: New taxon | Fossil | Burmite | Cretaceous | Myanmar

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Authors:

Luis F. Mendes
Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT),
Jardim Botânico Tropical / Zoologia.
R. da Junqueira, 14, 1300-343 Lisboa, Portugal;
luis.mendes@iict.pt

Jörg Wunderlich
Oberer Häuselbergweg 24, 69493 Hirschberg, Germany

New data on the distribution and biology of Machlaides tenuicornis Stach,1930 (Microcoryphia: Meinertellidae) in the lberian Peninsula (western Palaearctic)

Mª Jose Notario-Munoz, Rafael Molero-Baltanas, Carmen Bach de Roca & Miquel Gaju-Ricart

Title: New data on the distribution and biology of Machlaides tenuicornis Stach,1930 (Microcoryphia: Meinertellidae) in the lberian Peninsula (western Palaearctic)

Abstract

New data on the geographic distribution and biology of Machiloides tenuicornis Stach, 1930 is given. This species is the only representative of the genus in the Palaearctic and occurs in the central part of the Spanish Pyrenees. The study of samples collected has allowed us to study their life cycle and mode of reproduction. The number of males and females in the samples show that 33.3 % are bisexual populations and 66.6 % are only female populations. The study of the length of all individuals of each sample suggests that the specimens hatch at the end of spring or beginning of summer and can live at least two years. Finally, analysis of the geographical distribution of bisexual and female populations suggests a possible ecological pattern of geographical parthenogenesis.

Keywords: Machiloides tenuicornis | geographic distribution | life cycle | geographic parthenogenesis

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Authors:

Mª José Notario-Muñoz
Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba,
C-1 Campus Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain;
ba1garim@uco.es

Rafael Molero-Baltanás
Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba,
C-1 Campus Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain

Carmen Bach de Roca
Department of Animal and Vegetal Biology and Ecology,
Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain

Miquel Gaju-Ricart
Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba,
C-1 Campus Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain

Description of a new genus and a new species of Machilidae (Insecta: Microcoryphia) from Turkey

Carmen Bach de Roca, Pietro-Paolo Fanciulli, Francesco Cicconardi,
Rafael Molero-Baltanás & Miguel Gaju-Ricart

Title: Description of a new genus and a new species of Machilidae (Insecta: Microcoryphia) from Turkey

Abstract

A new species and a new genus of Microcoryphia from Turkey are described. The new genus, named Turquimachilis has, as its most important distinctive feature, the presence in the male of unique parameres on the IXth urostemite, with proximal protuberances and chaetotaxy. They are different from all the other genera of the order. This alone is sufficient to allow the creation of a new genus. We add other anatomical characteristics that allow us to differentiate the new genus from the closest known genera. The type species is described.

Keywords: Turquimachilis mendesi | new genus | new species | Charimachilis | Turkey

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Authors:

Carmen Bach de Roca
Department of Animal and Vegetal Biology and Ecology,
Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain;
Carmen.Bach@uab.cat

Pietro-Paolo Fanciulli
Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva, University of Siena,
Via Aldo Moro, 2 – 53100 Siena, Italy

Francesco Cicconardi
Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva, University of Siena,
Via Aldo Moro, 2 – 53100 Siena, Italy

Rafael Molero-Baltanás
Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Campus Rabanales,
14014 Córdoba, Spain

Miguel Gaju-Ricart
Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Campus Rabanales,
14014 Córdoba, Spain

New species of Neotropiella Handschin, 1942 (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Brazil

Gabriel C. Oueiroz, Tatiana C. Da Silveira & Maria Cleide De Mendonça

Title: New species of Neotropiella Handschin, 1942 (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Brazil

Abstract

Three new species of Neotropiella Handschin, 1942 are described from Southeastern Brazil. Remarks are made in respect to the diagnosis of the genus and some of the species described up to date. The species Neotropiella barbatae sp. nov. and N. macunaimae sp. nov. belong to a complex of species with serrated chaetae. The other new species, N. insularis sp. nov., is the second of the genus that has bi- or trilobed vesicles on the PAO. Observations on the chaetotaxy of Abd VI of the new species can bring new insights to the taxonomy of the genus. A comparative table including all the species described to date is provided.

Keywords: New species | taxonomy | Pseudachorutinae | Brazil | Neotropic

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Authors: 

Gabriel C. Queiroz
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20.940-040 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil;

Doutorando do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
gabriel_cq@yahoo.com.br

Tatiana C. Da Silveira
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20.940-040 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil;

Mestranda do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, UNIRIO, 22.290-240. Urca, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil

Maria Cleide De Mendonça
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20.940-040 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil;

Professor Associado I do Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Onychiuridae of China: species versus generic diversity along a latitudinal gradient

Xin Sun, Louis Deharveng, Anne Bedos, Donghui Wu & Jian-Xiu Chen

Title: Onychiuridae of China: species versus generic diversity along a latitudinal gradient

Abstract

Our knowledge of Chinese Onychiuridae (sensu Deharveng 2004) accelerated during the five last years. From 2008, we have recorded 29 species and six genera of Onychiuridae new for China, reflecting an increase of 64 % in the number of species and 46 % in the number of genera for the country. Twenty-one of these species were new to science. Today, there are 45 described species belonging to 13 genera of Onychiuridae in China. Their diversity pattern exhibits a remarkable gradient in genus versus species diversity from southwestern China (14 species in four genera) to northeastern China (18 species in 10 genera). A checklist and a key to genera of Chinese Onychiuridae are given. Because huge regions of China remain unsampled or undersampled, and because species have narrow distribution, an increase in species number is likely to continue at the same pace in the coming years.

Keywords: Collembola | distribution | biodiversity patterns | checklist | identification key | taxonomy

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Authors:

Xin Sun
Key laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment,
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130012, China

Louis Deharveng
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR7205 du CNRS,
CP50, 45 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France;
deharven@mnhn.fr

Anne Bedos
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR7205 du CNRS,
CP50, 45 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France

Donghui Wu
Key laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment,
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130012, China

Jian-xiu Chen
Department of Biological Science and Technology, Nanjing University,
Nanjing 210093, China

The Collembola fauna of lrish forests – a comparison between forest type and microhabitats within the forests

Thomas Bolger, Joan Kenny & Julio Arroyo

Title: The Collembola fauna of lrish forests – a comparison between forest type and microhabitats within the forests

Abstract

Forest is the climax vegetation for most of Ireland. Yet, at the beginning of the twentieth century, because of deforestation, only 1.4 % of the land area was afforested. Currently government policy encourages afforestation and at present approximately 10 % of the land is forested. More than 90 % of these forests are plantation forests and most of this new forest consists of exotic trees, such as Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) introduced from North America. Little is known of the invertebrate fauna of these plantations and it is of interest to know the composition of the fauna and whether it differs from those of native tree species. In the current study we focus on the Collembola fauna occurring in the canopy and soil microhabitats of Irish forests and show that these differ between tree species and microhabitat within the forest. In particular, native oak forests harbour many more Collembola species than the other forest types investigated and non-native forests appear to harbour fewer species than do forests of native species. However, this is a not a simple relationship as first rotation Sitka spruce forests harboured more species than some native forest types. The main differences in species composition are between those species living in bark or in epiphytic cover on the trees with deciduous species having different species to conifers.

Keywords: Introduced species | biodiversity | Collembola | canopy | soil

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Authors:

Thomas Bolger
UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science,
UCD, Belfield, Dublin 4;
tom.bolger@ucd.ie

Joan Kenny
UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science,
UCD, Belfield, Dublin 4;

Julio Arroyo
UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science,
UCD, Belfield, Dublin 4;

The use of inert pads to study the Collembola of suspended soils

Peter Shaw

Title: The use of inert pads to study the Collembola of suspended soils

Abstract

A simple, cheap and non-destructive technique is introduced for the collection of micro-arthropods in sensitive habitats, focussing on suspended soils (accumulations of humus and organic detritus in trees, elevated above soil level). These habitats contain distinctive communities of soil fauna, but in most European forests suspended soil volumes are so small and slow to regenerate that systematic collections can destroy much of the suspended soil resource in a woodland, requiring years to recover. Here I calibrate a non-destructive collection technique based on inserting a pad of inert material with a wide pore space, allowing the material to be colonised then removing the pad for Tullgren extraction. Standard domestic scouring pads are ideal for this purpose and extract quickly in high gradient extractors. This method has the potential to become a standard non-destructive collection technique for suspended soils as well as in other sensitive habitats such as caves. It is also a suitable platform for a wide variety of small-scale projects involving experimental manipulations.

Keywords: Arboreal arthropods | vertical migration | synthetic habitat

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Peter Shaw
Centre for Research in Ecology, Whitelands College,
University of Roehampton SW15 4JD, London, United Kingdom;
p.shaw@roehampton.ac.uk