Soil Organisms

2014 Issues

Issue 86 (3)  December 2014

Collembola, Neanuridae, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Nematoda

Sinan Anlaş & Johannes Frisch
On the Scopaeina Mulsant & Rey of the Middle East: A new species from Turkey and new biogeographic data (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Gabriel Costa Queiroz & Maria Cleide de Mendonça
Revalidation of Handschinia Stach, 1949 (Collembola, Neanuridae) with description of a new species from Brazil

Dieter Sturhan
Plant-parasitic nematodes in Germany – an annotated checklist

Johannes Frisch
A revision of the Central Asian Scopaeus Similis species group (Staphylinidae, Paederinae)

Thanks to referees

All articles

On the Scopaeina Mulsant & Rey of the Middle East: A new species from Turkey and new biogeographic data (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Sinan Anlaş & Johannes Frisch

Title: On the Scopaeina Mulsant & Rey of the Middle East: A new species from Turkey and new biogeographic data (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Abstract

The scope of this article is the taxonomy and biogeography of the rove beetle subtribe Scopaeina Mulsant & Rey in the Middle East with an emphasis on the Anatolian fauna. Scopaeus menteshensis sp. n. from the Muğla and Denizli Provinces in the southwest of Turkey is described, and its phylogeographic relationships are discussed. New records for Micranops pilicornis(Baudi) and 29 species of Scopaeus are presented and discussed against the background of the distribution pattern of the respective species. They include 2 new country records (S. elegans: Jordan, S. filiformis: United Arab Emirates) and 71 first records at the province level, 59 of which for provinces of Turkey. Recently published records of S. alaniensisS. bicolorS. kurdistanicoidesS. laevigatus, and S. minutoides for Iran are implausible and rejected.

Keywords:Acari | Scopaeina | Micranops | Scopaeus | taxonomy | distribution

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Authors:

Sinan Anlaş
Celal Bayar University, Alaşehir Vocational School, Department of Entomology,
TR-45600, Alaşehir, Manisa, Turkey

Johannes Frisch
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and
Biodiversity at the Humboldt-University,
Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany

Revalidation of Handschinia Stach, 1949 (Collembola, Neanuridae) with description of a new species from Brazil

Gabriel Costa Queiroz & Maria Cleide de Mendonça

Title: Revalidation of Handschinia Stach, 1949 (Collembola, Neanuridae) with description of a new species from Brazil 

Abstract

The analysis of species of Arlesia Handschin, 1942 with 7+7 eyes revealed new characteristics, such as position and shape of guard S-chaetae of Ant III organ, mandible teeth number, number of chaetae on thorax I and mucro: dens ratio, which supported the revalidation of Handschinia Stach, 1949. Arlesia fluminensis (Arlé, 1939) and Arlesia proxima (Arlé, 1939) are formally transfered to Handschinia, H. fluminensis (Arlé, 1939) comb. nov. and H. proxima (Arlé, 1939) comb. nov., and a new species, Handschinia rauli sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Remarks on the genus Arlesia and Handschinia are made. The diagnosis of Handschinia is expanded.

Keywords: Pseudachorutinae | taxonomy | chaetotaxy | diversity | Neotropics

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Authors:

Gabriel Costa Queiroz
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista s/nº,
São Cristóvão,20940-040, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil

Pesquisador Colaborador, Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,

Maria Cleide de Mendonça
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista s/nº,
São Cristóvão,20940-040, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brasil

Pesquisador Colaborador, Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,
Biodiversity at the Humboldt-University,
Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany

Professor Associado II do Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 

Plant-parasitic nematodes in Germany - an annotated checklist

Dieter Sturhan

Title: Plant-parasitic nematodes in Germany – an annotated checklist

Abstract

A total of 268 phytonematode species indigenous in Germany or more recently introduced and established outdoors are listed. Their current taxonomic status and classification is given, which is not always in agreement with that applied in Fauna Europaea or recent publications. Recently used synonyms are included and comments on the species status are sometimes added. Species originally described from Germany are particularly marked, presence of types and other voucher specimens in the German Nematode Collection – Terrestrial Nematodes (DNST) is indicated; likewise potential occurrence or absence of species in field soil and similar cultivated land is noted. Species known from indoor plants and only occasionally observed outdoors are listed separately. Synonymies and species considered as species inquirendae are listed in case records refer to Germany; records and identifications considered as doubtful are also listed. In a separate section notes on a number of genera and species are added, taxonomic problems are indicated, and data on morphology, distribution and habitat of some recently discovered species and of still unidentified or undescribed species or populations are given. Longidorus macroteromucronatus is synonymised with L. poessneckensis. Paratrophurus striatus is transferred as T. casigo nom. nov., comb. nov. to the genus Tylenchorhynchus. Neotypes of Merlinius bavaricus and Bursaphelenchus fraudulentus are designated.

Keywords: Aphelenchida | Biodiversity | German Nematode Collection | Longidoridae | Longidorus macroteromucronatus | Nematofauna | Paratrophurus striatus | Trichodoridae | Tylenchida

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Dieter Sturhan
Arnethstr. 13D, 48159 Münster, Germany,
and c/o Julius Kühn-Institut,
Toppheideweg 88, 48161 Münster, Germany

A revision of the Central Asian Scopaeus Similis species group (Staphylinidae, Paederinae)

Johannes Frisch

Title: A revision of the Central Asian Scopaeus Similis species group (Staphylinidae, Paederinae)

Abstract

The Scopaeus similis species group, distributed in Central Asia and the Middle East, is proposed for S. ferganensis sp. n. (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan), S. gissarensis sp. n. (Uzbekistan), S. hiekei sp. n. (Kazakhstan), S. longilobatus sp. n. (Kyrgyzstan), S. triangularis Luze, 1904 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan), and two subspecies of S. Similis Eppelsheim, 1892, S. s. Similis (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan) and S. s. minor ssp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan). It is described including bionomic and biogeographic information, followed by diagnoses of the included species, the Distribution patterns of which are discussed and mapped. The S. Similis species group is proposed a monophyletic clade using apomorphic characters of the primary sexual organs. Its phylogenetic position within Scopaeus Erichson, 1839 is discussed as well as the phylogeographic relationships within the species group. New country records are published for S. s. Similis (Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan), S. Similis incertae sedis (Afghanistan, India), and S. triangularis (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan).

Keywords: Scopaeina | Tien Shan | Alai-Pamir | taxonomy | phylogeography

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Johannes Frisch
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and
Biodiversity at the Humboldt-University,,
Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany

Thanks to referees

Issue 86 (2)  August 2014

Proceedings of the 9th Colloquium on Acarology
September 2013 · Graz, Austria

9th Colloquium on Acarology

Preface

Martina Fröschl, Stephan Handschuh, Rudolf Erlach, Thomas Schwaha,
Helmuth Goldammer, Reinhold Fragner & Manfred G. Walzl
Computer-generated images of microscopic soil organisms for documentary films

Gerd Alberti & Rainer Ehrnsberger
Fine structure of the naso with median eye and trichobothria in the prostigmatid mite Rhagidia halophila(Rhagidiidae, Actinotrichida)

Stefanie Lazarus & Günther Krisper
Diversity of the oribatid mite fauna (Acari, Oribatida) in two dry meadows in Styria (Austria)

Tobias Pfingstl & Reinhart Schuster
Global distribution of the thalassobiontic Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida)

Ricarda Lehmitz
The oribatid mite community of a German peatland in 1987 and 2012 – effects of anthropogenic desiccation and afforestation

Additional contribution
Tarombera Mwabvu
Surface-active millipedes (Diplopoda) and associated mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) in Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve in Durban, South Africa

 

9th Colloquium on Acarology

Preface

All articles

Computer-generated images of microscopic soil organisms for documentary films

Martina Fröschl, Stephan Handschuh, Rudolf Erlach, Thomas Schwaha, Helmuth Goldammer, Reinhold Fragner & Manfred G. Walzl

Title: Computer-generated images of microscopic soil organisms for documentary films

Abstract

The depiction of microscopic soil animals in film is complicated. In principle it is possible to capture real film footage of such organisms using microscopes and special camera equipment, but this entails severe limitations in terms of resolution and depth of field. This makes nano-scale close-up details with color and motion impossible. In addition, microscopic soil animals hardly Show their natural behavior under the conditions required for filming. Here we describe an alternative approach – based on computergenerated imagery – to portraying the microscopic world in documentary film. In the workflow presented here, we first created high-detail models of various microscopic soil animals by using complementary imaging methods at multiple levels of resolution. These models were then animated based on live observations of motion and behavior. This approach enables photo-realistic digital motion pictures of various soil animals. A broad range of potential applications, the aesthetics, as well as creative Advantages justify the efforts to generate such scientific visualizations.

Keywords: Acari | Tardigrada | Computer Animation | Micro-Computed Tomography | Workflow

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Authors:

Martina Fröschl
Technical Chemistry – Art & Science Visualization, University of Applied Arts Vienna,
Oskar-Kokoschka-Platz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria
Industrial Motion Art Filmproduktion GmbH, Visual Effects and Digital Art Studio,
Linke Wienzeile 118/28, A-1060 Vienna, Austria

Stephan Handschuh
VetCore-Facility for Research, University of Veterinary Medicine,
Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria

Rudolf Erlach
Technical Chemistry – Art & Science Visualization, University of Applied Arts Vienna,
Oskar-Kokoschka-Platz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria

Thomas Schwaha
Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna,
Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

Helmuth Goldammer
Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna,
Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

Reinhold Fragner
Technical Chemistry – Art & Science Visualization, University of Applied Arts Vienna,
Oskar-Kokoschka-Platz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria
Industrial Motion Art Filmproduktion GmbH, Visual Effects and Digital Art Studio,
Linke Wienzeile 118/28, A-1060 Vienna, Austria

Manfred G. Walzl
Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna,
Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

Fine structure of the naso with median eye and trichobothria in the prostigmatid mite Rhagidia halophila (Rhagidiidae, Actinotrichida)

Gerd Alberti & Rainer Ehrnsberger

Title: Fine structure of the naso with median eye and trichobothria in the prostigmatid mite Rhagidia halophila(Rhagidiidae, Actinotrichida)

Abstract

Rhagidia halophila, as other Rhagidiidae, possesses a distinct frontal idiosomatic protuberance, the naso. It bears an unpaired eye (ocellus) that is directed ventrally and consists of four receptor cells provided with numerous rhabdomeric microvilli. The cuticle overlying the microvilli is thin and smooth in contrast to the dorsal cuticle of the naso that shows a fine, spiny sculpture. Details of the fine structure of the receptor cells of the eye are reported. It seems that there is a high membrane turnover which is indicated by numerous dense stacks of membranes. The peculiarity of the median eye and the naso of actinotrichid mites is highlighted and interpreted as plesiomorphic within Arachnida. On the dorsal side of the naso, a pair of small setae (internal verticals) is located in deep sockets thus representing trichobothria. Each sensillum is innervated by two dendrites which terminate with prominent tubular bodies. The axons of the receptor cells of these trichobothria like those of the median eye leave the naso through a narrow passage bordered by specialized cells.

Keywords: Acari | evolution | ocellus | sensilla | tubular bodies | ultrastructure

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Gerd Alberti
Allgemeine und Systematische Zoologie, Zoologisches Institut und Museum,
Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald,
J.-S.-Bach-Str. 11/12, 17487 Greifswald, Germany

Rainer Ehrnsberger
Institut für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften, Universität Vechta,
Driverstr. 22, 49377 Vechta, Germany

Diversity of the oribatid mite fauna (Acari, Oribatida) in two dry meadows in Styria (Austria)

Stefanie Lazarus & Günther Krisper

Title: Diversity of the oribatid mite fauna (Acari, Oribatida) in two dry meadows in Styria (Austria)

Abstract

The oribatid mite fauna of two dry meadows has been studied and compared (Peggauer Wand, Zigöllerkogel). In autumn and summer at both sites, 10 samples were taken, and a total of 19,931 mites were identified, representing 42 families, 57 genera and 85 species. Mean abundance varied from 36,840 individuals m-2 up to 59,990 individuals m 2. The two habitats differed qualitatively in the composition of their oribatid mites. Individuals of Oppiidae were most abundant in all sample units. Very frequent taxa were Quadroppiidae and Suctobelbidae as well as Ceratozetidae. Most species exhibited a clumped distribution. Species richness was higher on Peggauer Wand. Differences in diversity were conspicuous between summer and autumn on Zigöllerkogel, whereas the presence of species on Peggauer Wand was more balanced. The composition of oribatid mite fauna of these two habitats differs remarkably (Sørensen-coefficient 0.55). Concerning their ecological requirements the collected species are classified as follows: 23.5 % xerothermophilous, 21.2 % euryoecious, 23.5 % silvicolous, 10.6 % praticolous, muscicolous, and hygrophilous, 21.2 % ‘unknown’. A comparison with published data of other dry habitats shows that each site harbours its own species community, probably depending on landform configuration, microclimate, and association of plants.

Keywords: ecology | soil zoology | biodiversity | oribatid mites

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Authors:

Stefanie Lazarus
Institute of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Günther Krisper
Institute of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Global distribution of the thalassobiontic Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida)

Tobias Pfingstl & Reinhart Schuster

Text: Global distribution of the thalassobiontic Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida)

Abstract

The global distribution of Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae was updated based on new records and yet unpublished findings. These new data confirm that both families show a transoceanic occurrence on tropical and subtropical coasts. Moreover, it is suggested that the distribution of fortuyniid and selenoribatid mites is correlated with the presence of warm ocean currents and waters. Fortuyniid mites are recorded for the first time from the Archipelago of Hawaii, from Mauritius and the Seychelles. First records of selenoribatid mites include Hawaii, the Canaries and Australia. These records and the discovery of many new species and even a new genus in the Caribbean and the Western Atlantic support the assumption that the biogeographic knowledge about Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae is still incomplete and requires further zoogeographical research.

Keywords: Biogeography | transoceanic | climate | diversity

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Authors:

Tobias Pfingstl
Institute of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

Reinhart Schuster
Institute of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria

The oribatid mite community of a German peatland in 1987 and 2012 – effects of anthropogenic desiccation and afforestation

Ricarda Lehmitz

Title: The oribatid mite community of a German peatland in 1987 and 2012 – effects of anthropogenic desiccation and afforestation

Abstract

Peatlands harbour a large number of specialized plants and animals. In many European countries more than 90% of the peat bogs have been destroyed through drainage for agriculture and forestry. The knowledge on the consequences for soil animals restricted to peatlands is scarce. The current study presents a comparison of the oribatid mite assemblages recorded in 1987 and 2012 from a Sphagnum bog being part of a large peatland complex that has suffered from drainage between the two periods. Furthermore, the oribatid mite fauna of the Sphagnum bog is compared to the fauna of adjacent peatland habitats of different soil moisture, shadowing and vegetation (Molinia meadow, spruce afforestation, birch wood). The study addresses the following questions:
1) which environmental factors determine the oribatid species composition in the peatland complex?
2) how do anthropogenic desiccation and afforestation influence the oribatid mite Assemblage?
CCAs were calculated using the species abundances recorded in 2012 and the Parameters soil moisture, vegetation temperature index, pH, cover of the tree-, herb- and moss layer, cover of herbleaf- litter and needle litter as well as C/N ratio. In total, 87 oribatid mite species were recorded in the Dubringer Moor in 2012. Species Distribution was most closely related to cover of herb-leaf-litter and needle-litter, soil moisture and vegetation temperature index. However, all sampling sites in the spruce forest contained similar sets of common species despite of differences in moisture and vegetation cover. The species composition of the two birch wood sites differed slightly from that of the spruce forest sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum bog was characterized by five tyrphophilic species (Pergalumna nervosaPilogalumna tenuiclavaMalaconothrus monodactylusMainothrus badiusNothrus pratensis) that occurred almost exclusively here. The Molinia Meadow as a degenerated part of the Sphagnum bog contained almost no species that were characteristic for the Sphagnum bog site. However, species richness was higher in the Moliniameadow, because a large number of species characteristic for forest Habitats occurred. In the Sphagnum bog, species richness was heavily reduced from 1987 to 2012 from 37 to 10 species and also density was reduced from 164 individuals/100 cm³ to 9 individuals/100 cm³ due to ongoing desiccation. Several bog specific species such as Hoplophthiracarus illinoisensisTrhypochthoniellus longisetus and Trhypochthonius nigricans have apparently disappeared from the Sphagnum bog today. Characteristic bog species still occurring in the Sphagnum bog in 2012 might be less sensitive to dryer periods and strong water level fluctuations than the species that disappeared since 1987. The results indicate that desiccation in Sphagnum sp. reduces oribatid species richness. However, after vegetational changes to, e.g., a Molinia meadow, oribatid species richness increases again due to immigrating species that are characteristic for forest habitats and euryoecious species. The oribatid mite community composition and densities of tyrphophilic and hygrophilic species appeared to be closely related to Sphagnum bog desiccation and peatland habitat characteristics. Oribatid mites therefore obviously offer the opportunity to evaluate the ecological conditions and degeneration of a peatland.

Keywords: Acari | Dubringer Moor | drainage | indicator species

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Ricarda Lehmitz
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Additional contribution: Tarombera Mwabvu Surface-active millipedes (Diplopoda) and associated mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) in Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve in Durban, South Africa

Tarombera Mwabvu

Title: Additional contribution: Surface-active millipedes (Diplopoda) and associated mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) in Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve in Durban, South Africa

Abstract

Surface-active millipedes and associated mites were surveyed during two rainfall seasons in Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve (PVNR) in Durban, South Africa. Four millipede species, Doratogonus cristulatus (Porat, 1872) and Orthoporoides pyrhocephalus(C. L. Koch, 1865) (Spirostreptida, Spirostreptidae), Centrobolus anulatus (Attems 1934) (Spirobolida, Pachybolidae) and Sphaerotherium giganteum Porat, 1872 (Sphaerotheriida, Sphaerotheriidae) were recorded. All the species, except D. cristulatus, were arboreal. The sex ratio in D. cristulatus was strongly male-biased compared to O. pyrhocephalus and Centrobolus anulatus. Adult Neomegistus julidicola Trägärdh 1906 (Acari, Mesostigmata) were recorded only on males of D. cristulatus and O. pyrhocephalus. Incidence of mites on D. cristulatus and O. pyrhocephalus was 50 % and 6 %, respectively. The abundance, incidence and infestation intensity of mites on millipedes were higher at the beginning of the rainfall season when millipedes emerged than at any other time during the season. Surface-active females of D. cristulatus were uncommon and N. julidicola was found only on males. Most (50 %) of the mites were found on the anterior third of the male millipede body. The association between O. pyrhocephalus and N. julidicola is a new record. Although the results may not reflect the diversity of millipedes in PVNR because the sampling strategy did not include searching in the soil, they highlight the importance of carrying out surveys in urban reserves to provide data to inform biodiversity and conservation research.

Keywords: incidence | abundance | phoresy | biodiversity | conservation

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Tarombera Mwabvu
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus,
PBX54001, Durban 4000, South Africa

Issue 86 (1)  April 2014

Collembola, Hymenoptera, Nematoda, Oribatida, Formicidae und Staphylinidae

David J. Russell, Karin Hohberg, Mikhail Potapov, Alexander Bruckner,
Volker Otte & Axel Christian
Native terrestrial invertebrate fauna from the northern Antarctic Peninsula: new records, state of current knowledge and ecological preferences – Summary of a German federal study

+ Supplementary Material is linked to the online version of the paper at  www.soil-organisms.org

Andrey S. Zaitsev & Natalia B. Pystina
Remarks on fauna and population of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Priazovsky National Wildlife Sanctuary (Southern Russia)

Johannes Frisch & Lee Herman
A catalogue of Micranops Cameron, with description of a new species from Tanzania (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Ali Bagherian Yazdi
Application of geometric morphometrics to analyse allometry in two species of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Bernhard Seifert
A pragmatic species concept applicable to all eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history)

All articles

Native terrestrial invertebrate fauna from the northern Antarctic Peninsula: new records, state of current knowledge and ecological preferences – Summary of a German federal study

David J. Russell, Karin Hohberg, Mikhail Potapov, Alexander Bruckner,
Volker Otte & Axel Christian

Title: Native terrestrial invertebrate fauna from the northern Antarctic Peninsula: new records, state of current knowledge and ecological preferences – Summary of a German federal study

Abstract

The Antarctic terrestrial invertebrate fauna has been intensely studied during the last 120 years. However, due to their difficult accessibility, large regions of terrestrial Antarctica still remain to be investigated soil-zoologically. Some areas that have remained unstudied are now being increasingly visited by, i.e., Antarctic cruise-ship voyages. These sites are therefore becoming available for the expansion of Antarctic soil-zoological research. A study commissioned by the German Federal Environment Agency allowed the investigation of the edaphic fauna in ice-free areas along the routes of touristic cruise ships in the maritime Antarctic. A total of 13 localities around the northern Antarctic Peninsula were studied during the austral summers of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, many of which had never been investigated regarding their edaphic fauna. Soil-substrate samples were taken and the Nematoda, Collembola and Acari extracted and identified. More than 320,000 individuals and almost 100 species were recorded. Nematoda represented the most individual- and species-rich taxonomic group, followed by Collembola (abundances) and actinedid mites (species richness). The recorded fauna was typical for Maritime Antarctica. Although previous authors consider Antarctic species to have a low habitat specificity and broad tolerance for different habitat conditions, in the present study many individual species showed significant relationships to specific habitat parameters (i.e., vegetation, soil organic matter, soil moisture). While no new endemic species were identified among the microarthropods (Collembola and Acari), several nematode taxa were found that are probably new to science. Previous knowledge regarding the distribution, ecology (i.e, microhabitat preferences, nutrient resources or life cycles) and partly also the taxonomy of the recorded species are reviewed.

Keywords: Maritime Antarctica | Nematoda | Collembola | Actinedida | Oribatida | Gamasina

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suppl.

Authors:

David J. Russell
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Karin Hohberg
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Mikhail Potapov
Moscow Pedagogical State University,
Mnevniki Street, 123308 Moscow, Russia

Alexander Bruckner
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor Mendel-Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria

Volker Otte
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

Axel Christian
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany

 

Remarks on fauna and population of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Priazovsky National Wildlife Sanctuary (Southern Russia)

Andrey S. Zaitsev & Natalia B. Pystina

Title: Remarks on fauna and population of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Priazovsky National Wildlife Sanctuary (Southern Russia)

Abstract

This study is devoted to the faunal inventory and preliminary ecological analysis of oribatid mite communities in Priazovsky National Wildlife Sanctuary (Krasnodar Krai, Southern Russia), which is included into the Ramsar Convention ‘Kuban Delta’ Wetland of international importance. We sampled five major habitat types represented in the sanctuary and its environs: liman-reed beds, sandy coasts, elevated coasts, rice paddies, and a salt marsh. In total, 40 oribatid mite species were found. They belonged to 22 families. Most of the species were earlier met in the neighboring regions: Krasnodar Krai, Rostov region and Northern Caucasus. Few species however were found in Krasnodar Krai for the first time, e.g. Ghilarovizetes obtusus Shaldybina, 1969, which was earlier recorded only in the Central and Eastern Caucasus. The most species-rich habitats were liman-reed beds. In rice paddies, oribatid communities were rudimentary and represented only by very few species. The abundance of different oribatid ecomorphs was quite contrasting across the five habitat types. Soil-dwelling mites dominated in liman-reed beds possibly due to stable humidity of soil in this habitat type. The presence of aquatic mites in liman reed beds was also quite peculiar. In welldrained elevated coasts, non-specialized and surface-dwelling mites were the most numerous because of their better adaptation to drought. In sandy coasts and salt marshes, surface-dwelling mites prevailed. We conclude that salinity and rice-growing seem to reduce considerably abundance and diversity of oribatid mites in the study area. We further assume that the quite high similarity of oribatid fauna in Priazovsky National Wildlife Sanctuary with that in the surrounding regions suggests much closer biogeographic relationship of Kuban lowlands with other regions of North Caucasus, than one would expect.

Keywords: Oribatid community | Kuban river delta | Ramsar wetland | soil mesofauna | ecomorphs

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Authors:

Andrey S. Zaitsev
A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution,
Russian Academy of Sciences
Leninsky prospect 33, 119071 Moscow, Russia;

Natalia B. Pystina
Center of Environmental Safety, Energy Efficiency and Occupational Safety and Health,
Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies –
Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, Razvilka settlement
Leninsky Rayon, 142717 Moskovskaya oblast, Russia

A catalogue of Micranops Cameron, with description of a new species from Tanzania (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Johannes Frisch & Lee Herman

Title: A catalogue of Micranops Cameron, with description of a new species from Tanzania (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

Abstract

A species catalogue of the little-known genus Micranops Cameron, 1913 is presented. Based on the examination of primary types, 21 species are transferred to Micranops as new combinations: Micranops aborensis (Fagel, 1973), M. brachyceroides (Fagel, 1973), M. brachycerus (Fauvel, 1900), M. caelebs (Fagel, 1973), M. chloroticus (Sharp, 1876), M. hoyoensis (Fagel, 1973), M. hustachei (Coiffait, 1987), M. lacustris (Bernhauer, 1937), M. longiceps (Casey, 1886), M. lwiroensis (Fagel, 1973), M. mabalianus (Fagel, 1973), M. mediicollis (Lea, 1923), M. myrmecophilus (Bernhauer, 1921), M. pallidulus (Kraatz, 1859), M. obscurellus (Cameron, 1932), M. planiusculus (Kraatz, 1859), M. pokharensis (Coiffait, 1981), M. ruwenzoricus (Fagel, 1973), M. subapterus (Cameron, 1951), M. upembanus (Fagel, 1973), and M. zambezianus (Fagel, 1973). Micranops bartolozzii sp. n., a microphthalmous, flightless species, is described from the Udzungwa Mountains in southern Tanzania, and both its primary and secondary sexual characters are figured. Consequently, 32 species are currently assigned to Micranops.

Keywords: Micranops bartolozzii sp. n. | Geoscopaeus | Tanzania | nomenclature | taxonomy

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Authors:

Johannes Frisch
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research
on Evolution and Biodiversity at the Humboldt-University,
Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany;
johannes.frisch@mfn-berlin.de

Lee Herman
American Museum of Natural History,
Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, USA

Application of geometric morphometrics to analyse allometry in two species of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Ali Bagherian Yazdi

Title: Application of geometric morphometrics to analyse allometry in two species of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Abstract

Allometric changes in shape were analyzed in two species of the genus Myrmica using geometric morphometics. The pattern of allometry was visualized by thin plate splines (TPS) analysis. In 291 worker ants, 41 landmarks and 252 semilandmarks were fixed in images from four aspects: dorsal head, frontodorsal clypeus, dorsal mesosoma and lateral petiole. To explore how shape varies with size, a multivariate regression on centroid size was performed using the scores of all partial warps (PWs) from all four aspects. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to compare the pattern of allometry between species, using all PWs from pooled coordinates of the two species as varieties, centroid size as the covariate and species as the grouping factor. For all four aspects in each species, the null hypothesis of isometry was rejected (i.e., allometry was present) since the multivariate regressions were statistically significant. The amount of shape variation accounted for by the regressions differed considerably between the species studied and among the four aspects, ranging from 2.62 % for the petiole of M. vandeli to 13.95 % for the mesosoma of M. scabrinodis. There were no significant differences between the two species in the allometric patterns of head and clypeus aspects (MANCOVA test). In a multivariate ordination, removing the allometric effects reduced overlap between species only a little or not at all. Geometric morphometrics allows the visualization of the allometries of particular shape components that would probably remain undetected by a conventional morphometric analysis.

Keywords: allometry | Myrmica scabrinodis | Myrmica vandeli | thin plate splines | ants

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Ali Bagherian Yazdi
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany;
yazdiir@yahoo.com

A pragmatic species concept applicable to all eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history)

Bernhard Seifert

Title: A pragmatic species concept applicable to all eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history)

Abstract

It is shown that the species concept of Ernst Mayr does not consider the evolution and modes of reproduction of eucaryotic organisms as a whole. It is only translatable into a taxonomic practice in a very special situation: sexually reproducing and sympatrically occurring organisms that do not exchange genes. Mayr’s central criterion of reproductive isolation is not applicable to the pervasive cases of reticulate evolution, to numerous groups of organisms with asexual reproduction, to the frequent situations of allopatry and to classification of fossil organisms. Evaluating advantages and disadvantages of five broadly applied species concepts and integrating elements of the related concepts of Sonneborn (1957), Sokal & Crovello (1970) and De Queiroz (2007), a new synthesis, called the Pragmatic Species Concept, is presented: ‘A species is a cluster of organisms which passed a threshold of evolutionary divergence. Divergence is determined by one or several operational criteria described by an adequate numerics. A single conclusive operational criterion is sufficient. Conflicts between operational criteria require an evolutionary explanation. Thresholds for each operational criterion are fixed by consensus among the experts of a discipline under the principle of avoiding over-splitting. Clusters must not be the expression of intraspecific polymorphism.’ This concept is applicable to all known groups of eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history. It allows both an approach by multisource integrative taxonomy as well as by a single discipline and is open for integrating new disciplines. The concept enables sound taxonomic decisions also in case of reticulate evolution, parthenogenesis, apomixis, allopatry, separate time horizons and reversal of strong evolutionary divergence. The complex problem could only be solved by focusing on the degree of evolutionary divergence, reproducible numeric data recording, adequate numeric analyses and the threshold principle. Recommendations of how to translate this concept into a taxonomic practice are given.

Keywords: species concept | reticulate evolution | adaptive introgression | parthenogenetic reproduction | cryptic species | fossil species | cluster analysis

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Bernhard Seifert
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz,
Postfach 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany;
bernhard.seifert@senckenberg.de