Messel Research

Team

Kullmer
PD Dr. Ottmar Kullmer
prov. Head of Divison Messel Research and Mammalogy

Educational background

25.04.1991 Diploma in Geology, Paleontology, Zoology and Anthropology, JG University of Mainz, Germany
16.09.1997 Dr. rer. nat. graduation in Paleontology and Geology, Faculty of Geosciences, JG University of Mainz, Germany
10.02.2014 Habilitation, Venia legendi for Zoology (Privatdozent), Faculty of Biosciences, Goethe University Frankfurt a. M., Germany
 
Positions held

2016  – Head Department of Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany
2001  – Head Tertiary Mammal and Morphometrics Section, Senckenberg Research Institute, Department of Palaeoanthropology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2008 – 2014 Provisional Head of Mammalogy Section, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Department of Messel Research and Mammalogy Frankfurt, Germany
2003, 2004  Guest-professorship, Institute for Anthropology, University of Vienna, Austria.
1994 – 1997  Research Fellow University of Mainz, DFG-Project: Evolution of African Plio-Pleistocene suids based on tooth pattern analysis
1998 Research Assistant Hesse State Museum Darmstadt
1993 – 1994  Research Assistant Hesse State Museum Darmstadt
1999 – 2001 Research Fellow University of Mainz, Hesse State Museum Darmstadt, DFG-Project: Digital Breakage Pattern Analysis
 
Research profile

  • Palaeoanthropology
  • Virtual Anthropology
  • Hominid Palaeoecology and Palaeobiogeography
  • Life History Reconstruction
  • Palaeodiet
  • Biomechanics
  • Hard Tissue Functional Morphology
  • Palaeobiology of Mammals
  • Bone and tooth morphometry
     

Research interests

My research interests are diverse, reaching from general mammalian palaeobiology and palaeoanthropology into almost all topics of bone and dental analyses. In 2001 I have established at SF a virtual imaging lab for 3D-digitalization, editing, reconstruction and morphometrics of vertebrate hard tissue. The focus of my research lays on the structure and function of teeth with a main attention on evolutionary development, dietary and cultural adaptations in the masticatory system. A number of my national and international research projects funded by the DFG (e.g. DFG-FOR771) and the EU (EU-MRTN-CT-2005-019564) have led to the development of the well-known Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA).
 
Field experience

1988 Maramena (Northern Greece): Upper Miocene.
1992 – 1997 Chiwondo Beds (Malawi) ” Hominid Corridor Research Project”, Plio-Pleistocene.
1998 – 1999 Laetoli (Ndolanya Beds) and Kakesio (Kakesio Beds) in Tanzania, Plio-Pleistocene.
2000 – 2009 Gadamaitu (Somali Region) in Ethiopia: Plio-Pleistocene.
2006 Albertine Rift (Nkondo, Kaiso) Uganda: Mio-Peistocene
2008 –  Chiwondo Beds (Malawi) ” Hominid Corridor Research Project”, Plio-Pleistocene.
 
Third party funded projects (last 10 years)

2019 – 2020 The impact of climate change on growth and development in marsupial and placental mammals. Contribution: Chief Investigator. Cooperation with Dr. L. Fiorenza, Monash University, Australia. Faculty of Science and Faculty of Medicine Interdisciplinary Research Seed Funding Scheme (S01802), Monash University, Australia.                                                        18.000 €
 
2017 Monash University, Faculty of Medicine Strategic Grant Scheme (SGS16-0344). Understanding the evolution of the human diet. Cooperation with Dr. L. Fiorenza Monash University, Australia.                                                                                               30.000 €
 
2008 – 2014 DFG (German Science Foundation) reserach unit FOR 771: Occlusal Fingerprint Analyser – OFA software tool for the analysis of occlusal tooth contacts, 370.000 €
 
2012 – 2014 DFG (German Science Foundation) KU 1260/8 Project A2: Evolution and functional variability of bunodont molars in primates, 220.000 €
 
2008 – 2014 DFG (German Science Foundation) KU 1260/9 Project D3: Function of the dentition in original Tribosphenida, Co-PI together with Prof. Dr. T. Martin, University Bonn, 210.000 €
 
2006 – 2009 EU-MRTN-CT-2005-019564 EVAN – European Virtual Anthropology Network,Human Resources and Mobility (HRM) Activity, Marie Curie Actions Research Training Network (RTN), together with 15 European Partners                                                        EVAN total amount, 3.500.000 €
 
2006 – 2009 EU-MRTN-CT-2005-019564 EVAN own sub-project: Functional pattern analysis of tooth surfaces applying virtual technique, 250.000 €
 
Academic teaching experiences (selected)          

  • Lectures

2011 – Evolutionary biology of mammals and paleoanthropology Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2006  – Paleoecology of early hominids     (Functional morphology of mammals), Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2003 – 2004 Background to African hominid sites, Department of Anthropology, University Vienna, Austria
2001 – 2002 Palaeobiology of vertebrates (architecture and function), Institute of Geosciences Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2000 – 2005 Specific zoology (vertebrates), comparative morphology and function of the Metazoa (amphibians, reptiles, mammals), Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
 

  • Practical courses

2011  – Strukture and function of organisms, Institut für Ökologie, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2011 –     Practical course and excursion, Evolutionary biology of mammals and paleoanthropology, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2010 – Evolution and biodiversity of animals (Evolution of architectural and functional morphology of vertebrates Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2006 – Paleoecology of early hominids     (Functional morphology of mammals)         ), Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2001 –       Introduction to the scientific work, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2003 – 2004    Privatissimum, practical training for fossil sites remote sensing (satellite image analysis), Department of Anthropology, Univeristy Vienna, Austria
2000 – 2005    Specific zoology (vertebrates), comparative morphology and function of the Metazoa (amphibians, reptiles, mammals), Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany

  •  Seminars

2011 – Seminar of evolutionary biology, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2007 – Seminar for exam candidates, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2006 –  Paleoecology of early hominids     (Functional morphology of mammals), Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2001 – Introduction to the scientific work, Examenskandidaten, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2003 – 2004 Introduction in the Plio-Pleistocene faunas of Africa, Department of Anthropology, Univeristy Vienna, Austria
 

  • Supervision/Co-supervision of PhD thesis

2018 – Zur Bedeutung der Analyse okklusaler Abrasionsmuster für die klinisch-manuelle Funktionsdiagnostik“, dissertation J. Heil, cooperation with Prof. U. Lotzmann, Phillipps University Marburg, Germany.
2018 – Dietary Changes during the english industrial revolution and transformed masticatory behaviours. Dissertation C. Silvester, cooperation with Prof. S. Hillson University College London, UK.
2011 – 2017 Evolution und Funktionsvariabilität von bunodonten Molaren bei Primaten, disseration U. Menz, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2010 – 2015  Early Homo phylogenetic and functional relationships, reconstructed from mandibular/dental structures and growth patterns, dissertation M. Bäuchle, cooperation with Prof. J.-J. Hublin, Max-Planck Institut for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig and Prof. F. Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2006 – 2012 Tandem scanning Microscopical Analysis of enamel ultrastructure of Homo erectus, dissertation J. Tausch, cooperation with Prof. F. Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany, and Prof. Dr. T. Bromage New York University (NYU), College of Dentistry
2006 – 2009 Occlusion Wear Pattern Analysis of Functional Morphology in Neanderthal and         Early Homo sapiens, dissertation Luca Fiorenza, cooperation with Prof. F.  Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2003 – 2006 Kaumechanik und Funktion der Molaren-Okklusion früher Hominiden, dissertation M.  Huck, cooperation with Prof. F. Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2002 – 2006  Molaren – Konstruktion und Funktion der Okklusionsfacetten der Cercopithecoidea, dissertation L. Ulhaas, cooperation with Prof. F. Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2001 – 2004 Molaren – Konstruktion, Phylogenese und Paläoökologie der Hominoidea (Hylobates, Pongo, Gorilla, Pan), dissertation K. Engel, cooperation with Prof. F. Schrenk, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
 

  • Supervision of Diploma, master and bachelor thesis

2001 – Diploma, master and bachelor thesis in the fields of evolution and functional morphology of mammals, including hominins, paleoecology, taphonomy, morphometry, 2D/3D image analysis, virtual paleontology, Paläoökologie, Taphonomie, Morphometrie, 2D/3D Bildverarbeitung; Virtuelle Paläontologie Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
 

  • Long term scientific cooperations (international und national)

2018 – Virtual analyses of functional morphology in modern human teeth. Cooperation: Prof. U. Lotzmann, department of orofacial Prosthetics and function, Phillipps University Marburg, Germany.
2016 – Isotope, element and ultra-structure analyses in dental tissue for life history reconstructions of mammals, and hominins. Cooperation:  Prof. W. Müller, Institute of Geosciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany, Prof. A. Mulch, Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center Frankfurt, Germany, Dr. L Bondioli, Museo delle Civiltà Roma, Servizio di Bioarcheologia, Roma, Italy, Prof. R. Joannes-Boyau Southern Cross University Lismore, Australia, Prof. G. Schwartz, School of Human Evolution and Social Changes, Arizona State University Tempe, USA.
2015 – Human Evolution and Biodiversity in South East Asia. Analysis of fossil remains in the G.H.R. von Koenigswald collection. Cooperation: Clément Zanolli, Laboratoire PACEA, University Bordeaux, France.
2010 – Human Paleobiomics Hard Tissue Research Program (www.paleobiomics.org), International research program for structural life history analyses of dental and bone material. Cooperation: Prof. T. Bromage, University of New York (NYU), College of Dentistry, Prof. F. Schrenk JWG – Universität Frankfurt a. M.
2010 –  Phylogenetic and functional relationships in early hominins reconstructed from mandibular/dental structures and growth patterns. Cooperation: Prof. Jean-Jacques Hublin, Prof. K. Kupczik, Dr. P. Gunz, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Prof. Schrenk, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
2010 – Combining Finite Element Method (FEM) and Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA), distribution of loads in dental tissues and mandibular bone, dental arch reconstruction in fossil hominids derived from Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis Prof. S. Benazzi, Department of Cultural Heritage. University Bologna, Italy
2006 – Virtual structure analysis und 3D morphometry in anthropology, EVAN Society (www.evan-society.org). Kooperation: Prof. G. Weber, Department of Anthropology, University Vienna.
2003 – Fundamental research in correlation between the jaw joint motion and native occlusal surface in teeth. Cooperation: Prof. Olaf Winzen, SRH-University Hamm, Dentale Bewegungslehre und Craniomedizin Zentrum Frankfurt, Germany.
 

  • Organisation of international workshops und conference (selection)

2019  International Senckenberg Workshop “Evolutionary Medicine: The Biocultural Perspective”, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2016  Co-organizer International Senckenberg-Conference 125 Years of Homo erectus; Georgian National Museum, Tbilisi, Georgia
2011 Co-organizer International Senckenberg Konferenz „The World at the Messel Time: Puzzles in Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment and the History of the early Primates”. Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2007 EVAN „Intensive Training Course“ Evolution und Function of Mammalian Dentition Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2005 3D-Advances in Natural History and Cultural Heritage (Symposium with 80 international participants) Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
 
Museum activities

  • Exhibits

2010  Scientific supervision „Safari zum Urmensch“, temporary exhibition Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2008 – 2010 Idea, concept and organisation „Humans in 3D – In the focus digital techniques, travelling exhibition in the frame of the EU-project EVAN. presentation: Frankfurt, Germany, Vienna Austria, Leipzig, Germany, Mettmann, Germany, Toulouse, France, Meersburg, Germany.
1998 Concept and co-organisation permanent exhibition ”Die Frühzeit des Menschen”, State Museum of Hessia Darmstadt, Germany.                                  
1998 Scientific supervision of eight head-reconstructions of early humans, cooperation with   Wildlife Art (W. Schnaubelt & N. Kieser), State Museum of Hessia Darmstadt, Germany.
 

  • Curator activities

2001 – Collections of fossil mammal remains dinothere sands of Eppelsheim 1996-2000 and Dorn Dürkheim hosted in the Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2001 –  Collection G.H.R. von Koenigswald fossil teeth and bone from Java, Indonesia, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2001 – Cast collection fossil of hominids, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2001 – Collection digital surface and CT data of fossil hominoid teeth, jaws, skulls, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
2008-2014 Provisional curator collection of modern mammals, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
 

  • Memberships, commissions and editorial activities

2011 – European Society of Human Evolution (ESHE)
2010 – 2012 Associate Editor Journal of Human Evolution
2009-2017 Scientific BoardWissenschaftsausschuss Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
2009 – EVAN Society e.V. European Virtual Anthropology Network
2006 – Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP)
2006 – IT-user advisory council Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
2005 – Scientific editorial advisory council Senckenberg Journal Nature – Research –Museum
2005 – German Palaeontological Society
 

Selected publications (peer-reviewed, since 2011)

2020

Fiorenza L, Menter C G, Fung S, Lee J, Kaidonis J,  Moggi-Cecchi J, Townsend G, Kullmer O, 2020. The functional role of the Carabelli trait in early and late hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 145, 102816   Gokhman D, Nissim-Rafinia M, Agranat-Tamir L, Housman G, García-Pérez R, Lizano E, Cheronet O, Mallick S, Nieves-Colón M, Li H, Alpaslan-Roodenberg S, Novak M, Gu H, Osinski J, Ferrando-Bernal M, Gelabert P, Lipende I, Mjungu D, Kondova I, Bontrop R, Kullmer O, Weber G, Shahar T, Dvir-Ginzberg M, Faerman M, Quillen E, Meissner A, Lahav Y, Kandel L, Liebergall M, Prada M E, Encinas J M V, Gronostajski R, Stone A, Yakir B, Lalueza-Fox C, Pinhasi R, Reich D, Marques-Bonet T, Meshorer E, Carmel L, 2020. Differential DNA methylation of vocal and facial anatomy genes in modern humans. Nature Communications, 11, 1189. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15020-6.   Zanolli C, Schillinger B, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Kelley J, Rössner GE, Macchiarelli R, 2020. When X-Rays Do Not Work. Characterizing the Internal Structure of Fossil Hominid Dentognathic Remains Using High-Resolution Neutron Microtomographic Imaging. Front. Ecol. Evol. 8:42. doi:10.3389/fevo.2020.00042   Gunz P, Kozakowski S, Neubauer S, Le Cabec A, Kullmer O, Benazzi S, Hublin J-J, Begun D R, 2020. Skull reconstruction of the late Miocene ape Rudapithecus hungaricus from Rudabánya, Hungary. Journal of Human Evolution, 138, 102687  
2019
Joannes-Boyau R, Adams J W, Austin C, Arora M, Moffat I, Herries A I, Tonge M P, Benazzi S, Evans A R, Kullmer O, Wroe S, Dosseto A, Fiorenza L 2019. Elemental signatures of Australopithecus africanus teeth reveal seasonal dietary stress. Nature, 572(7767), 112-115.

Zanolli C, Kullmer O, Kelley J, Bacon A-M, Demeter F, Dumoncel J, Fiorenza L, Grine FE, Hublin J-J, Nguyen AT, Nguyen TMH, Lei P, Schillinger B, Schrenk F, Skinner MM, Xueping J, Macchiarelli R, 2019. Evidence for increased hominid diversity in the Early to Middle Pleistocene of Indonesia. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3: 755–764.
 
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Zampirolo G, Mazurier A, Zanolli C, Macchiarelli R 2019. Dental macrowear and cortical bone distribution of the Neanderthal mandible from Regourdou (Dordogne, Southwestern France). Journal of Human Evolution, 132, 174-188.
 
2018
Lüdecke T, Kullmer O, Wacker U, Sandrock O, Fiebig J, Schrenk F, Mulch A 2018. Dietary versatility of Pleistocene hominins. PNAS, 115(52), 13330-13335.
 
Smith TM, Houssaye A, Kullmer O, Le Cabec A, Olejniczak AJ, Schrenk F, de Vos J, Tafforeau P, 2018. Disentangling isolated dental remains of Asian Pleistocene hominins and pongines. PloS ONE, 13(11), e0204737.
 
Wroe S, Parr WC, Ledogar JA, Bourke J, Evans SP, Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Hublin J-J, Stringer C, Kullmer O, Curry M, Rae TC, Yokley TR, 2018. Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy biting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285(1876), 20180085.
 
Oxilia G, Bortolini E, Martini S, Papini A, Boggioni M, Buti L, Figus C, Sorrentino R, Townsend G, Kaidonis J, Fiorenza L, Cristiani E, Kullmer O, Moggi-Cecchi J, Benazzi S, 2018. The physiological linkage between molar inclination and dental macrowear pattern. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 166:941-951.
 
Zanolli C, Pan L, Dumoncel J, Kullmer O, Kundrát M, Liu W, Macchiarelli R, Mancini L, Schrenk F, Tuniz C, 2018. Inner tooth morphology of Homo erectus from Zhoukoudian. New evidence from an old collection housed at Uppsala, C. 2018. University, Sweden. Journal of Human Evolution, 116, 1-13.
 
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Oxilia G, Kullmer O, 2018. Functional relationship between dental macrowear and diet in Late Pleistocene and recent modern human populations. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 28(2), 153-161.
 
Schillinger B, Beaudet A, Fedrigo A, Grazzi F, Kullmer O, Laaß M, Makowska M, Werneburg I, Zanolli C, 2018. Neutron Imaging in Cultural Heritage Research at the FRM II Reactor of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Center. Journal of Imaging, 4, 22; doi:10.3390/jimaging4010022.
 
2017
Zanolli C, Schillinger B, Beaudet A, Kullmer O, Macchiarelli R, Mancini L, Schrenk F, Tuniz C, Vodopivec V, 2017. Exploring hominin and non-hominin primate dental fossil remains with neutron microtomography. Physics Procedia, 88, 109-115.
 
Schultz JA, Menz U,  Winkler DE, Schulz-Kornas E, Engels S, Kalthoff DC, von Koenigswald W, Ruf I, Kaiser TM, Kullmer O, Südekum K-H, Martin T 2017. Modular Wear Facet Nomenclature for mammalian post-canine dentitions, Historical Biology: 1-12.
 
Bocherens H, Schrenk F, Chaimanee Y, Kullmer O, Mörike D, Pushkina D, Jaeger JJ, 2017. Flexibility of diet and habitat in Pleistocene South Asian mammals: Implications for the fate of the giant fossil ape Gigantopithecus. Quaternary International. 434 (A):148-155.
 
2016
Fiorenza L, Kullmer O 2016. Occlusion in an Adult Male Gorilla with a Supernumerary Maxillary Premolar. International Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-016-9937-6.
 
Luedecke T, Schrenk F, Thiemeyer H, Kullmer O, Bromage TG, Sandrock O, Fiebig J, Mulch A 2016. Persistent C3 vegetation accompanied Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution in the Malawi Rift (Chiwondo Beds, Malawi). Journal of Human Evolution, 90:163-175.
 
Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Kupczik K 2016. Dynamic Modelling of Tooth Deformation Using Occlusal Kinematics and Finite Element Analysis. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0152663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152663
 
Luedecke T, Mulch A, Kullmer O, Sandrock O, Thiemeyer H, Fiebig J, Schrenk F 2016. Stable isotope dietary reconstructions of herbivore enamel reveal heterogeneous savanna ecosystems in the Plio-Pleistocene Malawi Rift. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 479:170-181.
 
2015
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Henry AG, Salazar-García DC, Blasco R, Picin A, Wroe S, Kullmer O 2015. To Meat or Not to Meat? New Perspectives on Neanderthal Ecology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Yearbook of Physical Anthropology), 156 (Suppl.59):43–71.
 
Fiorenza L, Kullmer O 2015. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig andTillier. Homo – Journal of Comparative Biology, published online ahead of print, DOI:10.1016/j.jchb.2015.04.002.
 
Zanolli C, Grine FE, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Macchiarelli R 2015. Brief Communication: The Early Pleistocene Deciduous Hominid Molar FS-72 From the Sangiran Dome of Java, Indonesia: A Taxonomic Reappraisal Based on its Comparative Endostructural Characterization. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 157(4):666–674.
 
Oxilia G, Peresani M, Romandini M, Matteucci C, Spiteri CD, Henry AG, Schulz D, Archer W, Crezzini J, Boschin F, Boscato P, Jaouen K, Dogandzic T, Broglio A, Moggi-Cecchi J, Fiorenza L, Hublin J-J, Kullmer O, Benazzi S 2015. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic. Scientific Reports, 5, 12150. DOI:10.1038/srep12150
 
Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J-J 2015. Exploring the biomechanics of taurodontism. Journal of Anatomy, 226 (2):180-188.
 
Tausch J, Kullmer O, Bromage TG 2015. A New Method for Determining the 3D Spatial Orientation of Molar Microwear, Scanning, 9999:1-12. published online ahead of print DOI: 10.1002/sca.21234.
 
Shar S, Batsaikhan N, Dolch D, Gardner S, Kullmer O, Lebedev VS, Lkhagvasuren D, Menz U, Samiya R, Stubbe M, Ansorge H 2015. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811) from Mongolia. Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences, 13 (1-2). pp. 35-42.
Kullmer O, 2015: Der verlorene Biss: Biologische und kulturelle Evolution der Zähne. In (H. Böhme, B. Kordaß, B. Slominski Hrsg.) Das Dentale – Faszination des oralen Systems in Wissenschaft und Kultur. S.65-86, Quintessenz, Berlin.
 
2014
Emonet E-G, Kullmer O 2014. Variability in Premolar and Molar Root Number in a Modern Population of Pan troglodytes verus. The Anatomical Record 297(10): 1927-1934. DOI: 10.1002/ar.22959.
 
Weber GW, Benazzi S, Kullmer O 2014. Mikro-CT-Anwendungen in der biologischen Anthropologie. Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel 21(2):68-68f.
 
Benazzi S, Grosse,IR, Gruppioni,G, Weber GW, Kullmer O 2014. Comparison of occlusal loading conditions in a lower second premolar using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Clinical Oral Investigations, 18: 369-375.
 
2013 
Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J 2013. Unravelling the Functional Biomechanics of Dental Features and Tooth Wear. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69990. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069990
 
Fiorenza L, Kullmer O 2013. Dental wear and cultural behavior in Middle Paleolithic humans from the Near East. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 152: 107–117. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22335
 
Benazzi S, Nguyen NH, Schulz D, Grosse IR, Gruppioni G, Hublin J-J, Kullmer O 2013. The Evolutionary Paradox of Tooth Wear: Simply Destruction or Inevitable Adaptation? PLoS ONE 8(4): e62263.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062263.
 
Harvati K, Darlas A, Bailey SE, Rein TR, El Zaatari S, Fiorenza F, Kullmer O, Psathi E 2013. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: The Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site, Journal of Human Evolution, 64(6):486-499.
 
Weber GW, Benazzi S, Kullmer O 2013. CT-Anwendungen in der biologischen Anthropologie. Osteologie/Osteology, 22 (1):18-24.
 
Kullmer O, Benazzi S, Schulz D, Gunz P,  Kordos L, Begun DR 2013. Dental arch restoration using tooth macrowear patterns with application to Rudapithecus hungaricus, from the late Miocene of Rudabánya, Hungary. Journal of Human Evolution, 64(2):151-160.
 
Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Schulz D, Weber GW 2013. Individual tooth macrowear pattern guides the reconstruction of Sts 52 (A. africanus) dental arches. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150: 324-329.
 
von Koenigswald W, Anders U, Engels S, Schultz JA, Kullmer O 2013. Jaw movement in fossil mammals: analysis, description and visualization. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 87:141–159, doi:10.1007/s12542-012-0142-4.
2012
 
Kullmer O, Schulz D, Benazzi S 2012. An Experimental Approach to Evaluate the Correspondence Between Wear Facet Position and Occlusal Movements. The Anatomical Record, 295: 846–852.
 
Brügmann G, Krause J, Brachert TC, Stoll B, Weis U, Kullmer O, Ssemmanda I, Mertz DF, 2012. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance. Biogeosciences Discuss., 9, 3645-3691, doi:10.5194/bgd-9-3645-2012.
 
Böhme M, Aiglstorfer M, Uhl D, Kullmer O 2012. The Antiquity of the Rhine River: Stratigraphic Coverage of the Dinotheriensande (Eppelsheim Formation) of the Mainz Basin (Germany). PLoS ONE 7(5): e36817. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036817
 
Brügmann G, Krause J, Brachert TC, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Ssemmanda I, Mertz DF 2012. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation, Biogeosciences, 9, 119–139.
 
Smith TM, Olejniczak AJ, Zermeno JP, Tafforeau P, Skinner MM, Hoffmann A, Radovčić J, Toussaint M, Kruszynski R, Menter C, Moggi-Cecchi J, Glasmacher UA, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Stringer C, Hublin J-J 2012. Variation in enamel thickness within the genus Homo. Journal of Human Evolution 62:395-411.
 
Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Grosse IR, Weber GW, 2012. Brief Communication: Comparing Loading Scenarios in Lower First Molar Supporting Bone Structure Using 3D Finite Element Analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(1):128-134.
 
2011
Denys C, Sandrock O, Kullmer O, Ramirez Rozzi F, Bromage TG, Schrenk F 2011. Note on the presence of Hystrix (Mammalia, Rodentia) in the Malawi Chiwondo Beds (Plio-Pleistocene): taphonomical and palaeoecological implications. Geodiversitas 33 (4): 729-738.
 
Kullmer O, Sandrock O, Kupczik K, Frost SR, Volpato V, Bromage TG, Schrenk F 2011. New Primate Remains from Mwenirondo, Chiwondo Beds in northern Malawi, Journal of Human Evolution, 61:617-623.
 
Benazzi S, Douka K, Fornai C, Bauer CC, Kullmer O, Svoboda J, Pap I, Mallegni F, Bayle P, Coquerelle M, Condemi S, Ronchitelli A, Harvati K, Weber GW 2011. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behavior. NATURE, 479, 525-528.
 
Smith TM, Bacon A-M, Demeter F, Kullmer O, Nguyen KT, de Vos J, Wei W, Zermeno JP, Zhao L 2011. Dental tissue proportions in fossil orangutans from mainland Asia and Indonesia. Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1
 
Benazzi S, Viola B, Kullmer O, Fiorenza L, Harvati K, Paul T, Gruppioni G, Weber GW, Mallegni F 2011. A reassessment of the Neanderthal teeth from Taddeo cave (southern Italy). Journal of Human Evolution, 61(4):377-387.
 
Benazzi S, Fornai C, Bayle P, Coquerelle M, Kullmer O, Mallegni F, Weber G 2011. Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal andmodern human lower second deciduous molars. Journal of Human Evolution, 61(3):320-326.
 
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Kullmer O 2011. Para-masticatory wear facets and their functional significance in hunter–gatherer maxillary molars. Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 38 (9): 2182-2189.
 
Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Grosse IR, Weber GW 2011. Using occlusal wear information and finite element analysis to investigate stress distributions in human molars. Journal of Anatomy, 219:259–272.
 
Benazzi S, Fiorenza L, Kozakowski S, Kullmer O 2011. Comparing 3D Virtual Methods for Hemimandibular Body Reconstrution. The Anatomical Record, 294: 1116–1125.
 
Bocherens H, Sandrock O, Kullmer O, Schrenk F 2011. Hominin palaeoecology in Late Pliocene Malawi: First insights from isotopes (13C, 18O) in mammal teeth. South African Journal of Science, 107 (3/4), Art. #331, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v107i3/4.331
 
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Tausch J, Kullmer O, Bromage TG, Schrenk F 2011. Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation. PLoS ONE 6(3): e14769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014769
 
Benazzi S, Fiorenza L, Katina S, Bruner E, Kullmer O 2011. Quantitative assessment of interproximal wear facet outlines for the association of isolated molars, American Journal of Physical Anthropology,144(2):309–316.
 
Fiorenza L, Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Schrenk F 2011. Relationship Between Cusp Size and Occlusal Wear Pattern in Neanderthal and Homo sapiens First Maxillary Molars, The Anatomical Record, 294:453-461.
 
Benazzi S, Coquerelle M, Fiorenza L, Bookstein F, Katina S, Kullmer O 2011. Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of first molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144(3):342–354.

Anika Vogel
Technical Assistant
Martin Müller
Technical Assistant
Mitarbeiterfoto
Dr. Stephan Schaal
Visiting Researcher Messel Research (formerly Head of Division, retired since 1.7.2021)

Schaal, S. F. K. (2020). 25 Jahre UNESCO-Welterbe Messel Pit Fossil Site. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 150(10-12), 168-174.

Kullmer, O. &  Schaal, S. F. K. (2019). In Memoriam Jens Lorenz Franzen. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 149(1-3), 42.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2019). Forschung und Denkmalschutz im Wlterbe Grube Messel. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 149(1-3), 33-34.

Büchel, G. N. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). Die Entstehung des Messel-Maares. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem (pp. 7-16). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Büchel, G. N. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). The Formation of the Messel Maar. In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem (pp. 7-16). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). Messel – bewegte Vergangenheit, spannende Zukunft. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). Messel – Eventful past, exciting future In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem (pp. 1-6). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. F. K., Smith, K. T. & Habersetzer, J. (2018). Amnioten: Säuger, Vögel und Reptilien. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem (pp. 121). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. F. K., Smith, K. T. & Habersetzer, J. (Eds.). (2018). Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. F. K., Smith, K. T. & Habersetzer, J. (2018). Säugetiere – eine weitere Erfolgsgeschichte. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Smith, K. T., Čerňanský, A., Scanferla, C. A. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). Echsen und Schlangen – Wärmeliebende Sonnenanbeter. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem (pp. 123-148). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Smith, K. T., Čerňanský, A., Scanferla, C. A. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2018). Lizards and Snakes – Warmth-loving Sunbathers. In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem (pp. 123-148). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Smith, K. T., Schaal, S. F. K. & Habersetzer, J. (2018). Amniotes: Mammals, Birds and Reptiles. In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Smith, K. T., Schaal, S. F. K. & Habersetzer, J. (2018). Mammalia – Another Success Story. In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Smith, K. T., Schaal, S. F. K. & Habersetzer, J. (2018). Messel – An Ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Wedmann, S., Habersetzer, J., Lehmann, T., Ruf, I., Schaal, S. F. K., & Smith, K. T. (2018). Messel Research – Methods and Terms. In K. T. Smith, S. F. K. Schaal & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – An ancient Greenhouse Ecosystem (pp. 35-42). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Wedmann, S., Habersetzer, J., Lehmann, T., Ruf, I., Schaal, S. F. K. & Smith, K. T. (2018). Messelforschung – Methoden und Begriffe. In S. F. K. Schaal, K. T. Smith & J. Habersetzer (Eds.), Messel – Ein fossiles Tropenökosystem (pp. 35-42). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart‘sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Uhl, D., Kunzmann, L., Hertler, C., Kahlke, R.-D., Königshof, P., Kullmer, O., . . . Wilmsen, M. (2018). Frankfurt/Dresden/Görlitz: Palaeontological collections of the Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung Paleontological Collections of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (pp. 209-240): Springer Verlag.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2017). The Messel Pit Fossil Site. In N. C. Fraser & H.-D. Sues (Eds.), Terrestrial Conservation Lagerstätten (pp. 257-286). Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2017). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2017. GMIT – Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 68, 100.

Mayr, G. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2016). Gastric pellets with bird remains from the Early Eocene of Messel. Palaios, 31(9), 447-451. doi.org/10.2110/palo.2016.042

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2016). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2016. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 64:, 103.

Collearya, C., Dolocan, A., Gardner, J., Singh, S., Wuttke, M., Rabenstein, R., . . . Vinther, J. (2015). Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PNAS, 112(41), 12592–12597 und Suppl. 12591 und Suppl. 12592. doi/10.1073/pnas.1509831112

Lehmann, T., Laechele, U. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2015). Première description du foetus fossilisé d’un artiodactyle terrestre de l’Eocène. Basel, Suisse.

Rabenstein, R., Schaal, S. & Frey, M.-L. (2015). Klangsteine an der Grube Messel – Steinklang für Besucher des Welterbes. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 60:, 89-91.

Scanferla, A., Smith, K. T. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2015). Revision of the cranial anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the Eocene minute boas Messelophis variatus and Messelophis ermannorum (Serpentes, Booidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, doi: 10.1111/zoj.12300.

Uhl, D., Wedmann, S., Lehmann, T., Hervet, S. & Schaal, S. (2015). A fresh look on the Paleocene maar lake of Menat in France. In Zentrum für Biodokumentation (ZfB) (Ed.), ZfB-Scriptum – Veröffentlichungen des Zentrums für Biodokumentation (ZfB) (Vol. 4:, pp. 53-54). Landsweiler-Reden.

Wedmann, S., Schaal, S. & Frey, M.-L. (2015). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2015. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 62: 95-96.

Morlo, M., Bastl, K., Wenhao, W. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2014). The first species of Sinopa (Hyaenodontida, Mammalia) from outside of North America: Implications for the history of the genus in the Eocene of Asia and North America. Palaeontology, 57(1), 111-125. doi: 10.1111/pala.12052

Smith, K. T., Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2014). Management of the Messel Pit Fossil Site (Eocene, Germany) and the unknown diversity still buried in the rock. Mendoza, Argentinia.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2014). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2014. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 56:, Seite 66.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2013). Fossilienfundstätte Messel – Puzzlesteine für die Geschichte der Erde und des Lebens. Neumünster, Hamburg: Wachholtz Verlag.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2013). Nach 47 Mio. Jahren wachgeküsst. Die Grube Messel – ein einzigartiges Fenster ins Eozän. Labor & More, 5:, 64-68.

Schaal, S. F. K., Lehmann, T., Smith, K. T. & Wedmann, S. (2013). Geology of the site Menat 1 – Géologie du site Menat 1 (GPS: N46°06’18.0″, E2°54’47.4″). Frankfurt am Main.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2013). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2013. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 52:, Seite 84.

Gaudant, J., Schaal, S. F. K. & Wei, S. (2012). A short account on the Eocene fish fauna from Huadian (Jilin Province, China). In T. Lehmann & S. F. K. Schaal (Eds.), Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments (Vol. 92, pp. 417-423).

Joyce, W. G., Micklich, N., Schaal, S. F. K. & Scheyer, T. M. (2012). Caught in the act: the first record of copulating fossil vertebrates. Biology Letters, 8(5), 846-848 plus Supplementary Material 841 and 842. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0361

Lehmann, T. & Schaal, S. (Eds.). (2012). Special Issue: Messel and the terrestrial Eocene – Proceedings of the 22nd Senckenberg Conference (Vol. 92 (4):). Frankfurt an Main und Berlin, Heidelberg: Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung und Springer-Verlag

Lehmann, T. & Schaal, S. (2012). The World at the Time of Messel. Paläontologen aus fünf Kontinenten nahmen an der 22. Internationalen Senckenberg-Konferenz teil. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 142(3/4), 138-139.

Lehmann, T. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2012). „Messel and the terrestrial Eocene” – Proceedings of the 22nd Senckenberg Conference. In T. Lehmann & S. F. K. Schaal (Eds.), Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments (Vol. 92, pp. 397-402).

Rabenstein, R., & Schaal, S. (2012). Erlebnisgestaltung Weltnaturerbe Grube Messel – Geologische Aspekte Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft (Vol. 79:, pp. 39-41). Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.Lehmann, T. & Schaal, S. K. F. (Eds.). (2011). The World at the Time of Messel: Puzzles in Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment, and the History of Early Primates. 22nd International Senckenberg Conference. Frankfurt am Main, 15th –19th November 2011. Conference Volume. Frankfurt am Main: Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.

Schaal, S. (2012). Messel. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001626.pub3

Schaal, S. (2012). Messel Pit Fossil Site – The Legacy of the Environment and Life of Eocene. Dordrecht: Springer.

Schaal, S. F. K. (2012). Messel-Fossilien finden ihren Weg nach China. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 142(11/12), 380-383.

Schaal, S. F. K. & Joyce, W. G. (2012). Vereint, vergiftet, versteinert. Fossile Schildkröten im Doppelpack können erstmals als Weibchen und Männchen bei der Paarung identifiziert werden. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 142(11/12), 368-371.

Schaal, S. F. K. & Rabenstein, R. (2012). Der Tagebau Messel in Linien und Zahlen. Drei aktuelle Messel-Karten zum Download. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 142(11/12), 376-377.

Lehmann, T. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2011). Preface. Frankfurt am Main: Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.

Gaudant, J. & Schaal, S. F. K. (2011). A short account on the Eocene fish fauna from Huadian, Jilin Province, China. Frankfurt am Main: Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.

Rabenstein, R. & Schaal, S. (2011). Messeler Fossiliensammlungen. Einblicke in einen 47 Millionen Jahre alten Lebensraum. Senckenberg – natur forschung museum, 141(3/4), 90-95.

Schaal, S. (2011). Biodiversity in the Eocene of Messel, Germany. Shenyang, China: Paleontological Musuem of Liaoning.

Smith, K. T., Schaal, S. F. K., Sun, W. & Li, C.-T. (2011). Acrodont Iguanians (Squamata) from the Middle Eocene of the Huadian Basin of Jilin Province, China, with a critique of the taxon “Tinosaurus”. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49(1), 69-84.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2011). 12. Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2011. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 44:, 86-87.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2011). The Messel Pit Fossil Site: history and activities for its protection and scientific research Wieliczka Wieliczka Salt Mine.

Büchel, G., Schaal, S., Harms, F.-J., & Pirrung, M. (2010). Rekonstruktion des Messel-Maarvulkans. In A. Hoppe, H.-G. Röhling & C. Schüth (Eds.), Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften (Vol. 68:, pp. 119). Hannover.

Schaal, S. (2010). Project C: Tertiary floras and palaeoclimatic changes in NE China. Subproject C2: Eocene Vertebrates in Oil Shales of Huadian. Shenyang (China); Frankfurt am Main (Germany).

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2010). The Messel Pit Fossil Site – a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site. In Mügge-Bartolovi´c, H.-G. Röhling & V. Wrede (Eds.), Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften (Vol. 66:, pp. 99-100). Hannover.

Schaal, S. (2009). New fossil finds, small-sized but big “Stars” of the Messel Pit Fossil Site. Chaoyang, China

Schaal, S. (2009). New vertebrate finds from Huadian, Jilin Province, China (pp. S. 48). Beijing, China: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Wedmann, S. & Schaal, S. (2009). Messel-Arbeitstreffen 2009. GMIT Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 36:, 98-99.

Schaal, S. (2008). Highlights of the Messel Oil Shale. Global Geology, 11(1), 14-18.

Schaal, S. (2007). Fossile Systeme.- S. 34. Frankfurt am Main: Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.

Schaal, S. (2007). Highlights of the Messel Oil Shale. Benxi, China.

Schaal, S. (2007). Messelforschung – Ausgrabung einer vergangenen Inselzeit. Vernissage, Die Zeitschrift zur Ausstellung, 15(10), 36-41.

Schaal, S., Morlo, M., Chen, Y. & Li, C. (2007). First Asian Sinopa (Proviverrinae, Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta) from the late Middle Eocene of Northern China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(3), 141A.

Wartmann, V. & Schaal, S. (2007). Weltweit einzigartige Ausgrabungsstätte und der Besucher ist dabei – Die Grube Messel bei Darmstadt. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Schaal, S. (2006). After 47 Million Years Awakened by a Kiss – A Chronological of the Messel Fossil Site. Vernissage, Series: UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 13(21/05), 60-62.

Schaal, S. (2006). Double Lives and Cold Blood – Amphibians and Reptiles. Vernissage, Series: UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 13(21/05), 32-37.

Schaal, S. (2006). Kopidodon macrognathus – 47 Millionen Jahre alte Kostbarkeit entdeckt. Natur und Museum, 136(7/8), 178-179.

Wartmann, V. & Schaal, S. (2006). Weltweit einzigartige Ausgrabungsstätte und der Besucher ist dabei – Die Grube Messel bei Darmstadt. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Harms, F.-J. & Schaal, S. (Eds.). (2005). Current Geological and Paleontological Research in the Messel Formation (Vol. 255:). Frankfurt a. M.

Schaal, S. (2005). Die “Doppellebenden” und die “Kaltblütigen” Amphibien und Reptilien. Vernissage, Reihe: UNESCO-Welterbe, 13(21/05), 32-37.

Schaal, S. (2005). Eocene fauna of Messel Pit Fossil Site, Germany. Journal of Geoscientific Research in NE Asia, 8(1/2), 9-14.

Schaal, S. (2005). Fossile Systeme. Frankfurt a. M.: Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.

Schaal, S. (2005). Nach 47 Mio. Jahren wachgeküsst. Chronik der Fundstätte Messel. Vernissage, Reihe: UNESCO-Welterbe, 13(21/05), 60-62.

Schaal, S., Baszio, S. & Habersetzer, J. (2005). Differenzierung von Schlangenarten anhand qualitativer und quantitativer Merkmale sowie konventioneller Streckenmaße und Indizes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 255:, 133-169.

Habersetzer, J. & Schaal, S. (Eds.). (2004). Current Geological and Paleontological Research in the Messel Formation (Vol. 252:). Frankfurt a.M.

Morlo, M., Schaal, S., Mayr, G. & Seiffert, C. (2004). An annotated taxonomic list of the Middle Eocene (MP11) Vertebrata of Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 95-108.

Rabenstein, R., Habersetzer, J. & Schaal, S. (2004). Ein internetbasierter Überblick zum Weltnaturerbe Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 219-223.

Rabenstein, R., Usman, R. & Schaal, S. (2004). Suche nach rezenten Seen als Modelle für den eozänen Lebensraum von Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 115-138.

Schaal, S. (2004). Aktuelle Übersichtskarte zur Betriebs- und Grabungsplanung in der Fossilienfundstätte Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 207-210.

Schaal, S. (2004). Palaeopython fischeri n. sp. (Serpentes: Boidae), eine Riesenschlange aus dem Eozän (MP11) von Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 35-45.

Schaal, S. & Baszio, S. (2004). Messelophis ermannorum n. sp., eine neue Zwergboa (Serpentes: Boidae: Tropidopheinae) aus dem Mittel-Eozän von Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 67-77.

Schaal, S., Brahm, E. E., Habersetzer, J., Hebs, A., Müller, M. & Schlosser-Sturm, E. (2004). Literaturübersicht und Schriftenverzeichnis zur wissenschaftlichen Erforschung der Fossilienfundstätte Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 243-245.

Schmidt, P., Habersetzer, J. & Schaal, S. (2004). Multimedia-Präsentation zur Fossilienfundstätte Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:, 229-232.

Schaal, S. (2003). Fossilienfundstätte Grube Messel – bisher einziges paläontologisches Weltnaturerbe in Europa. In H. Quade (Ed.), Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Heft 25 und Akademie der Geowissenschaften zu Hannover: Veröffentlichungen (Vol. 22:, pp. 6-11). Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.

Morlo, M., Rabenstein, R., Schaal, S. & Habersetzer, J. (2002). Diet of Non-Flying Messel Tetrapods: Direct Vs. Indirect Evidence. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3), 90A.

Micklich, N. & Schaal, S. (2002). Fossilienfundstätte Grube Messel. Welterbe der UNESCO. Stuttgart: Theiss.

Schaal, S. (2002). Das Welterbe Grube Messel in der Öffentlichkeit oder: Paläontologie geht uns alle an. Bonn.

Schaal, S. (2002). Event in Berlin. Jüngste Entdeckungen der Messelforschung. Archäologie in Deutschland – Das Magazin, 2:, 6.

Schaal, S. (2002). Exponat des Monats Januar: Abenteuer Messelforschung geht weiter – Urtapir oder Urnashorn? Natur und Museum, 132(1), 39-40.

Schaal, S. (2002). Messel. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, 11:, 567-572.

Schaal, S. (2001). Abteilung Messelforschung. Natur und Museum, 131(9), 303-305.

Franzen, J. L. & Schaal, S. (2000). Der eozäne See von Messel. Berlin: Springer.

Harms, F.-J. & Schaal, S. (2000). Die Geologie der Grube Messel. Wiesbaden.

Harms, F.-J. & Schaal, S. (2000). Geology of the Messel Pit. Wiesbaden.

Lutz, H., Neuffer, F. O., Harms, F.-J., Schaal, S., Micklich, N., Gruber, G., . . . Lorenz, V. (2000). Tertiäre Maare als Fossillagerstätten: Eckfeld, Messel, Randeck, Höwenegg, Öhningen – Tertiary maars as fossil deposites: Eckfeld, Messel, Randeck, Höwenegg, Öhningen. In F. O. Neuffer & H. Lutz (Eds.), Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv, Beiheft (Vol. 24:, pp. 125-160). Mainz.

Schaal, S. (2000). Abteilung Messelforschung. Natur und Museum, 130(9), 307-308.

Schaal, S. (2000). Eine Brücke in die Vergangenheit. Fossillagerstätte Grube Messel. (Vol. 5:). München: Chronik Verlag.

Schaal, S., Harms, F.-J. & Habersetzer, J. (2000). Search, find, document, prepare. Wiesbaden.

Schaal, S., Harms, F.-J. & Habersetzer, J. (2000). Suchen, Finden, Dokumentieren, Präparieren. Wiesbaden.

Franzen, J. L. & Schaal, S. (1999). Eocene Lake Messel. Milano: Jacca Book.

Franzen, J. L. & Schaal, S. (1999). Il lago eocenico di Messel. Milano: Jacca Book.

Schaal, S. (1999). Aus den wissenschaftlichen Abteilungen: Abteilung Messelforschung. Natur und Museum, 129(19), 327-330.

Schaal, S. (1999). Die Fauna und Flora der Messel-Formation. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 7:, 90-91.

Schaal, S. (1999). Neuer Fossilfund aus Messel. Natur und Museum, 129(4), 130.

Schaal, S. & Habersetzer, J. (Eds.). (1999). Current Geological and Paleontological Research in the Messel Formation. Neues zur Geologie und Paläontologie der Messel-Formation (Vol. 216:). Frankfurt a. M.

Schaal, S. (1998). Ein Schädel und 197 Wirbel. Sigmaringen: Thorbecke.

Schaal, S. (1998). Un crâne et 197 vertébres. Seuil: Edition du Seuil.

Baszio, S. & Schaal, S. (1997). Die erste Sandboa aus Messel. Natur und Museum, 127(9), 313-314.

Baszio, S. & Schaal, S. (1997). The Eocene snake fauna from the Messel Pit Fossil Site. Prag.

Harms, F.-J. & Schaal, S. (1996). Die Geologie der Grube Messel. Wiesbaden.

Harms, F.-J. & Schaal, S. (1996). Grabungen, Führungen, Ausstellungen, Literatur… Wiesbaden.

Schaal, S. (1996). Fundstätte Messel zum Welt-Naturerbe ernannt. Natur und Museum, 126(1), 32.

Schaal, S., Harms, F.-J. & Habersetzer, J. (1996). Suchen, Finden, Dokumentieren, Präparieren. Wiesbaden.

Rabenstein, R. & Schaal, S. (1995). Eocene Lake Messel and its comparability with recent lakes. In N. Noe-Nygaard & U. Wiese Christensen (Eds.), Geologisches Institut Universität Copenhagen (pp. 109). Denmark.

Schaal, S. & Schneider, U. (Eds.). (1995). Chronik der Grube Messel. Gladenbach: Kempkes.

Schaal, S. & Schneider, U. (1995). Chronik der Grube Messel 1965 -1995. Gladenbach: Kempkes.

Habersetzer, J. & Schaal, S. (1994). Institutsübergreifende Dokumentation von Fossilienfunden aus der Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 170:, 189-195.

Schaal, S. (Ed.). (1994). Willi Ziegler-Festschrift III (Vol. 170:). Frankfurt a. M.

Ziegler, W. & Schaal, S. (1993). The oil shale pit Messel. Erlangen: Universität Erlangen-Nür

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1992). Crocodiles: large ancient reptiles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1992). Freshwater turtles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1992). Lizards: reptiles en route to success. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schaal, S. (1992). 1. Ermittlung der Bildungsdauer der Messeler Ölschiefer, ihre Auswirkung auf die Seemodelle und die stratigraphische Einhängung von Wirbeltierfunden. Bonn – Bad Godesberg.

Schaal, S. (1992). 2. Rezentuntersuchungen an einem subtropischen oder tropischen See in Südostasien. Bonn – Bad Godesberg.

Schaal, S. (1992). 3. Taxonomische Arbeiten und stereomorphometrische Vergleichsstudien an Messel- und Geiseltal-Schlangen. Bonn – Bad Godesberg.

Schaal, S. (1992). Curriculum vitae of the Messel pit. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schaal, S. (1992). The genesis of the Messel oil shale. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schaal, S. (1992). Sektion Messel. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Schaal, S. & Ziegler, W. (Eds.). (1992). Messel – An insight into the history of the life and of the Earth. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Ziegler, W., Franzen, J. & Schaal, S. (1992). Messelforschung. Natur und Museum, 122(11), 359-364.

Habersetzer, J., Schaal, S. & Wuttke, M. (1991). Eignung von faserverstärktem Epoxidharz und Polyester für die Röntgenanalyse transferierter Fossilien. Neues zur Geologie und Paläontologie der Messel-Formation. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 139:, 157-164.

Keller, T., Frey, E., Heil, R., Schaal, S., & Schmitz, M. (1991). Ein Regelwerk für paläontologische Grabungen in der Grube Messel. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 65(1/2), 221-224.

Schaal, S. (Ed.). (1991). Neues zur Geologie und Paläontologie der Messel-Formation (Messel-Eozän, Fundstätte Messel) (Vol. 139:). Frankfurt a. M.

Schaal, S., & Habersetzer, J. (1991). Ein neues Verfahren zum Schutz und zur dauerhaften Erhaltung geborgener Fossilien aus der Fundstätte Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 139:, 165-169.

Schaal, S., & Möller, M. (1991). Methodik der Senckenberg-Grabungen 1988-1990 und Ergebnisse zur Taphozönose der Messel-Formation (Fundstätte Messel). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 139:, 127-145.

Habersetzer, J., & Schaal, S. (1990). Röntgenmethoden zur Untersuchung fossiler und rezenter Wirbeltiere. Natur und Museum, 120(8), 254-266.

Schaal, S. (1990). Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 127:, 305-307.

Schaal, S. (1989). Messel: An important geological monument? Erdöl & Kohle – Erdgas – Petrochemie/Hydrocarbon Technology, 42:, 140-143.

Schaal, S., & Bruder, B. (1989). Die Grube Messel. Staatliche Landesbildstelle Hessen, Beiheft Dia Reihe, 1048117:, 1-30.

Gaudant, J. & Schaal, S. (1988). Il faut sauver le gisement de Messel! La Recherche: Special, 19(200), 854-858.

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1988). Krokodile – urtümliche Großechsen. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1988). Schildkröten – zu Lande und im Wasser. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Keller, T. & Schaal, S. (1988). Schuppenechsen – Reptilien auf Erfolgskurs. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Schaal, S. (1988). Die Entstehungsgeschichte der Messeler Tonsteine. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Schaal, S. (1988). “Lebenslauf” der Grube. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Schaal, S. & Ziegler, W. (Eds.). (1988). Messel – Ein Schaufenster in die Geschichte der Erde und des Lebens. Frankfurt a. M.: Kramer.

Schaal, S. (Ed.). (1987). Forschungsergebnisse zu Grabungen in der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt (Vol. 91:). Frankfurt a. M.

Schaal, S. (1987). Geological profiling in the oilshale pit Messel. Frankfurt a. M.

Schaal, S. (1987). Naturerbe Grube Messel. Ötv Magazin, 11:, 26-27.

Schaal, S. (1987). Plan der Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 91:, 213-215.

Schaal, S., Schmitz-Münker, M. & Wolf, H. G. (1987). Neue Korrelationsmöglichkeiten von Grabungsstellen in der eozänen Fossillagerstätte Grube Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 91:, 203-211.

Schaal, S. (1986). Sektion Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 85:, 309-310.

Schaal, S. (1986). Die Grube Messel unter Müll? Archäologie in Deutschland, 3:, 2-5.

Schaal, S. (1986). Korrelationsmöglichkeiten von Grabungsstellen in der eozänen Fossillagerstätte Grube Messel. Bonn, Frankfurt a. M., Göttingen: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Referat Geowissenschaften 2, Dr. D. Maronde,  AZ. II C 6 -325 433.

Dominik, W. & Schaal, S. (1984). Notes on the stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous phosphates (Campanian) of the Western Desert, Egypt. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A), 50:, 153-175.

Schaal, S. (1984). Oberkretazische Osteichthyes (Knochenfische) aus dem Bereich von Bahariya und Kharga, Ägypten, und ihre Aussagen zur Palökologie und Stratigraphie. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A), 53:, 1-79.