The ichthyological collection of the Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden, Museum for Zoology (formerly State Natural History Collections Dresden, Museum for Zoology), was founded as a separate department in 1880. A curator was employed in 1961. Up to this point the scientific exploitation of the material was carried out from colleagues from other institutes (e. g. Steindachner, Vienna or Fischer, Hamburg). Today the collection consists of three parts: (1) rests of the old Dresden collection, (2) parts of the collection of the University at Leipzig, which came to Dresden in the course of the reconstruction of the university affairs at the beginning of the seventies at the 20th century, and (3) the private collection of the actual curator and his voluntary co-workers and material, which was collected in the last years. Large parts of the old collection of Dresden were destroyed during the bombing raids in the end of the Second Word War. Nevertheless valuable faunistic proofs of the species are preserved which are now extinct in Saxony (Acipenser sturio, Alburnoides bipunctatus, a. o.) and also valuable type-specimens are preserved from this time. Valuable specimens of the old collection of the university at Leipzig belong to the oldest parts of the collection today. These are faunistical important specimens like Coregonus oxyrhinchus from the river Elbe near Dresden from 1880 and historical specimens collected by E. Poeppig (1798-1868) and his followers. An important increase came to the collection with the private collection of the actual curator and his voluntary co-workers. The contract with the Museu de Ictiologia der Universidad Tecnica del Beni, Trinidad, Bolivia, has stamped and will stamp the future work. In the focus are investigations to the taxonomy and phylogeny of Characiformes and Siluriformes of South America. The faunistical investigations in Saxony have her highlight in the publication of the “Atlas of the Fishes of Saxony” in the years 1996 and 2005, which was edited in co-operation with the Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Referat Fischerei, Königswartha.