Gunther Köhler at FMNH
Prof. Dr. Gunther Köhler

New species of amphibians and reptiles described by Köhler et al.

Research interests: Evolutionary biology of Latin American and Southeast Asian amphibians and reptiles.

Gunther Köhler achieved a degree in Veterinary Medicine (Staatsexamen) at the University Gießen, Germany, in 1993. In 1995 he completed his PhD in Biology on the ecology and systematics of Spiny-tailed Iguanas (genus Ctenosaura) at Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. In December 1995 he began his current position as the Curator of Herpetology at the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In 2009, he habilitated in Biosciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, with a thesis on evolutionary research with Central American Anolis – cryptic species, hybridization, and speciation processes. In April 2017 he became Adjunct Professor at the Goethe University Frankfurt. From March through May 2020 Köhler is Visiting Professor at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

His research focuses on the herpetofauna of the Neotropics, primarily that of Central America and Mexico, as well as that of Southeast Asia, mostly Myanmar and Thailand. To date, Köhler has authored or co-authored 28 books and 245 research papers on amphibians and reptiles.

His fieldwork began in 1988 with his first trip to Costa Rica. Since that trip he has returned to Latin America numerous times. In the 1990s he undertook many expeditions to Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, whereas in the past two decades, most of his field work has been done in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, the Dominican Republic, and Paraguay. More recently, his geographic area of interest has expanded to include Myanmar and Thailand where he has done intensive field work in the years 2017 to present. Aside from Latin America and Southeast Asia, Dr. Köhler also has conducted fieldwork in Iran, Europe, and on Cape Verde.

Throughout the countries he visited, Dr. Köhler has found (and is continuing to describe) many new species (see table below) and has added a wealth of information to the knowledge on known species.

The fundamental question Köhler is interested in is “How many and which reptile and amphibian species occur at a certain locality and what are the processes that led to the current state of diversity at this place?” Combining the data and knowledge on the diversity and taxonomy of the herpetofauna of numerous localities into large datasets makes it possible to analyze and understand larger zoogeographic and phylogeographic patterns. His broader research interests include the applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for exploring patterns of speciation and endemism.

One of the animal groups he always focused on are the anoles (family Dactyloidae). He has published numerous articles on the taxonomy of anoles and has, so far, described 54 new species of anoles. He discovered an astonishing interspecific variation in the morphology of the male copulatory organs (i.e., the hemipenes, singular: hemipenis) in anoles that led to the discovery and recognition of many cryptic species pairs and complexes, i.e. species that differ drastically in their hemipenial morphology but are exceedingly similar in external morphology. These observations led to an interest in understanding the driving forces of speciation in this group of lizards, which ultimately involved combining data on external and hemipenial morphology with molecular genetic data.

As Curator, Köhler promotes the maintenance, growth, and accessibility of the herpetological collections (SMF) and associated materials at the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main. His own collections from Latin America and Southeast Asia, including more than 8000 preserved specimens of amphibians and reptiles and also a large collection of tissues samples for genetic research, have been being integrated into the SMF collections. 

At Goethe University Frankfurt, Köhler teaches courses for Bachelor and Master students, including a module on Integrative Biodiversity Research in Zoology and a course on the Diversity of Organisms. He regularly hosts formal and informal tours of the Herpetology Division and occasionally gives public lectures. Ever since his early days at Senckenberg, a steady stream of undergraduate and graduate students, from several universities, but mostly from Goethe University Frankfurt, has joined his group, and numerous thesis works have been completed under his guidance. Students are involved in the research projects at the Köhler Lab and are routinely authors on the resulting papers, and regularly are included in field work in Germany as well as in the tropics.

Publications in journals


Köhler, G. & S. B. Hedges (2020): A replacement name for the Hispaniolan anole formerly referred to as Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron, 1837. Caribbean Herpetology 70: 1-3.

Carbajal-Márquez, R. A., Cedeño-Vázquez, J. R., Martins, M. & Köhler, G. (2020): Life history, activity pattern, and morphology of Crotalus tzabcan Klauber, 1952 (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 15(1):228–237.


Jansen, M., Santana, D. J., Teixeira, B. F. D. & Köhler, G. (2019): A new striped species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) with a composite advertisement call and comments on the D. rubicundulus group. Vertebrate Zoology 69(3): 227-246.

Uetz, P., Cherikh, S., Shea, G., Ineich, I., Campbell, P. D., Doronin, I. V., Rosado, J., Wynn, A., Tighe, K. A., Mcdiarmid, R., Lee, J. L., Köhler, G., Ellis, R., Doughty, P., Raxworthy, C. J., Scheinberg, L., Resetar, A., Sabaj, M., Schneider, G., Franzen, M., Glaw, F., Böhme, W., Schweiger, S., Gemel, R., Couper, P., Amey, A., Dondorp, E., Ofer, G., Meiri, S. & Wallach, V. (2019 ): A global catalog of primary reptile type specimens. Zootaxa 4695 (5): 438–450.

Cacciali, P., Buongermini, E. & Köhler, G. (2019): Barcoding analysis of Paraguayan Squamata. Diversity 11 (152): 1-15. doi:10.3390/d11090152

Köhler, G., Zimmer, C., McGrath, K. & Hedges, S. B. (2019): A revision of the genus Audantia of Hispaniola with description of four new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Novitates Caribaea 14: 1–104.

Köhler, G., Hantke, G., Méndez de la Cruz, F., Flamm, A. & Eisenberg, T. (2019): A survey for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Mexican states of México, Morelos, Oaxaca and Puebla. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 303–305.

Köhler, G., Than, N. L., Flamm, A. & Eisenberg, T. (2019): A preliminary survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Myanmar. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 298–300.

Köhler, G. & Mogk, L. (2019): Nachzucht des Helmleguans Corytophanes cristatus. Reptilia 24 (4): 30–35.

Köhler, G., Mogk, L., Kaing, K. P. P. & Than, N. L. (2019): The genera Fejervarya and Minervarya in Myanmar: Description of a new species, new country records, and taxonomic notes (Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae). Vertebrate Zoology 69 (2): 183–226.

Köhler, G. & Vargas, J. (2019): A new species of anole from Parque Nacional Volcán Arenal, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Norops). Zootaxa 4608 (2): 261–278.

Köhler, G., Petersen, C.B.P. & Méndez de la Cruz, F. R. (2019): A new species of anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Norops). Vertebrate Zoology 69 (2): 145–160.

Hofmann, E. P., Nicholson, K. E., Luque-Montes, I. R., Köhler, G., Cerrato-Mendoza, C. A., Medina-Flores, M., Wilson, L. D., Townsend, J. H. (2019): Cryptic diversity, but to what extent? Discordance between single-locus species delimitation methods within mainland anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of Northern Central America. Frontiers in Genetics 10 (11): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00011

Lehr, E., Moravec, J., Lundberg, M., Köhler, G., Catenazzi, A. & Šmíd, J. (2019): A new genus and species of arboreal lizard (Gymnophthalmidae: Cercosaurinae) from the eastern Andes of Peru. Salamandra 55 (1): 1–13.



Köhler, G. (2018): Das Pantherchamäleon (Furcifer pardalis). Tierverliebt Magazin 5 (Februar): 24-25.

Kafash, A., Ashrafi, S., Ohler, A., Yousefi, M., Malakoutikhah, S., Köhler, G. & Schmidt, B. R. (2018). Climate change produces winners and losers: Differential responses of amphibians in mountain forests of the Near East. Global Ecology and Conservation 16: 1–11. e00471

Köhler, G. & Mebs, D. (2018): Alfred A. Schmidt (1923 – 2016) pp. 322–327 in: Bischoff, W. (Ed.): Die Geschichte der Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde im deutschsprachigen Raum – II. Mertensiella 27: 1–556.

Smith, K. T., Bhullar, B.-A. S., Köhler, G. & Habersetzer, J. (2018): The only known jawed vertebrate with four eyes and the Bauplan of the pineal complex. Current Biology 28 (7): P1101-1107.

Cacciali, P. & Köhler, G. (2018): Diversity of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in Paraguay—an integrative taxonomic approach based on morphological and molecular genetic evidence. Zootaxa 4375 (4): 511–536.

Cacciali, P., Lotzkat, S., Gamble, T. & Köhler, G. (2018): Cryptic Diversity in the Neotropical Gecko genus Phyllopezus Peters, 1878 (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae): A New Species from Paraguay. International Journal of Zoology 2018, 14 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3958327

Díaz, L. M., Incháustegui, S. J., Marte, C., Köhler, G., Cádiz, A. & Rodríguez, M. (2018): A new frog of the Eleutherodactylus abbotti species group (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Hispaniola, with bioacoustic and taxonomic comments on other species. Novitates Caribaea 12: 25-42.

Köhler, G., Myat Tun, A., Haas, M., Jansen, M. & Than, N. L. (2018): Beobachtungen an einer Froschgemeinschaft in Bago, Myanmar. Sauria, Berlin 40 (2): 25-42.

Mebs, D., Yotsu-Yamashita, M. Pogoda, W., Vargas Alvarez, J., Ernst, R., Köhler, G., Toennes, S. W. (2018): Lack of alkaloids and tetrodotoxin in the neotropical frogs Allobates spp. (Aromobatidae) and Silverstoneia flotator (Dendrobatidae). Toxicon 152: 103-105.

Faivovich, J., M. O. Pereyra, M. C. Luna, A. Hertz, B. L. Blotto, C. R. Vásquez-Almazán, J. R. McCranie, D. A. Sánchez, D. Baêta, K. Araujo-Vieira, G. Köhler, B. Kubicki, J. A. Campbell, D. R. Frost, W. C. Wheeler & C. F.B. Haddad (2018): On the monophyly and relationships of several genera of Hylini (Anura: Hylidae: Hylinae), with comments on recent taxonomic changes in Hylids. South American Journal of Herpetology 13(1): 1-32.

Velasco, J. A., Villalobos, F., Diniz-Filho, J. A. F, Algar, A. C, Flores-Villela, O., Köhler, G., Poe, S. & Martinez-Meyer, E. (2018): Climatic and evolutionary factors shaping geographical gradients of species richness in Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 123 (3): 615–627. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blx160

Poe, S., Nieto-Montes de Oca, A., Torres-Carvajal, O., de Queiroz, K., Velasco, J. A., Truett, B., Gray, L. N., Ryan, M. J., Köhler, G., Ayala-Varela, F. & Latella, I. (2018): Comparative evolution of an archetypal adaptive radiation: Innovation and opportunity in Anolis lizards. The American Naturalist 191 (6).

Cacciali, P., Morando, M., Avila, L. J. & Köhler, G. (2018): Description of a new species of Homonota (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the central region of northern Paraguay. Zoosystematics and Evolution 94 (1): 147–161. DOI 10.3897/zse.94.21754

Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Mary T. K. Arroyo, Robin Abell, David Ackerly, Daniel Ackerman, Matias Arim, Jayne Belnap, Francisco Castañeda Moya, Laura Dee, Natalia Estrada-Carmona, Judith Gobin, Forest Isbell, Gunther Köhler, Marten Koops, Nathan Kraft, Nicholas Macfarlane, Arturo Mora, Gervasio Piñeiro, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Jean-Paul Metzger, Mike Oatham, Adriano Paglia, Pablo Luis Peri, Robert Randall, Judith Weis (2018): Chapter 3: Status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem functions underpinning nature’s benefit to people. Pp. 186-323 in: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Regional and subregional assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services: regional and subregional assessment for the Americas. IPBES/6/INF/4



Vargas-Alvarez, J., D. Mebs, W. Pogoda, S. W. Toennes & G. Köhler (2017): Craugastor polyptychus (Cope, 1886). Diet and absence of skin alkaloids. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4: 916–918.

Köhler, G., J. R. Cedeño-Vázquez, E., E. D. Kraus, P. M. Beutelspacher-García & J. A. Domíguez-Lepe (2017): The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 5. Imantodes tenuissimus, Lampropeltis triangulum, and Stenorrhina freminvillii. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4: 774–789.

Stark, T. C. Laurijssens, M. Weterings, A. Martel, G. Köhler & F. Pasmans (2017): Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a Nicaraguan, micro-endemic Neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa mombachoensis. Amphibia-Reptilia, Volume 38 (1): 102–107. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003077

Köhler, G., J. R. Cedeño-Vázquez, A. Myat Tun & Beutelspacher-García, P. M. (2017): The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 4. Coniophanes imperialis, C. meridanus and C. schmidti. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4: 528–542.

Köhler, G., Wurster, A. & Malkmus, R. (2017): Macroprotodon brevis (Iberian False Smooth Snake). Reproduction and diet. Herpetological Review 48(2), 452-453.

Cacciali, P., Martinez, N. & Köhler (2017): Revision of the phylogeny and chorology of the tribe Iphisini with the revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). ZooKeys 669: 89-105. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.669.12245

Cacciali, P., Morando, M., Medina, C. D., Köhler, G., Motte, M. & Avila, L. J. (2017): Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples of Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron (1836) with the revalidation of Homonota horrida Burmeister (1861) (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) and the description of a new species). PeerJ 5:e3523; DOI 10.7717/peerj.3523.

Poe, S., Nieto-Montes de Oca, A., Torres-Carvajal, O., de Queiroz, K., Velasco, J. A., Truett, B., Gray, L. N., Ryan, M. J., Köhler, G., Ayala-Varela, F., Latella, I. (2017): A phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic study of all extant species of Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae). Systematic Biology 66 (5): 663-697. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syx029



Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2016): A new species of Celestus (Squamata: Anguidae) from western Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 962–975.

Köhler, G., J. R. Cedeño-Vázquez, M. Spaeth & Beutelspacher-García, P. M. (2016): The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 3. Leptodeira frenata, Ninia sebae, and Micrurus diastema. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 930–947.

Motte, M., Cacciali, P. & Köhler, G. (2016): Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae): predación sobre ranas de la familia Hylidae. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 20 (2): 93–97.

Cacciali, P., Cabral, H., Ferreira, V.L. & Köhler, G. (2016): Revision of Philodryas mattogrossensis with the revalidation of P. erlandi (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 52 (4): 293–305.

Köhler, G., J. R. Cedeño-Vázquez, T. Kirstein & P. M. Beutelspacher-García (2016): The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 2. Dipsas brevifacies, Sibon sanniolus, and Tropidodipsas sartorii. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 688–704.

Köhler, G., J. R. Cedeño-Vázquez & P. M. Beutelspacher-García (2016): The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 1. Introduction and identification key to the snakes of southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 670–687.

Köhler, G., R. G. Trejo-Pérez, V. Reuber, G. Wehrenberg & F. Méndez-de la Cruz (2016): A survey of tadpoles and adult anurans in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico (Amphibia: Anura). Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 640–660.

Köhler, G., Rodriguez-Bobadilla, M.J.  & S.B. Hedges (2016): A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Novitates Caribaea 9: 1-135

Velasco, J., Martínez-Meyer, E., Flores-Villela, O., García, A., Algar, A.C., Köhler, G. & Daza, J.M. (2016): Climatic niche attributes and diversification in Anolis lizards. Journal of Biogeography 43, 134–144.

Köhler, G. (2016): Reproduction. Pp. 87-96. In Dodd, C. K. (Ed.): Reptile Ecology and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 462 pp.

Köhler, G. & Hedges, S.B. (2016): A new dune-dwelling lizard of the genus Leiocephalus (Iguania, Leiocephalidae) from the Dominican RepublicZootaxa 4121 (5): 517–532.

Köhler, G. (2016): Beiträge senckenbergischer Herpetologen zur Erforschung der Amphibien und Reptilien Lateinamerikas.Pp. 307-332. In: Kwet, A. & Niekisch, M. (Eds.): Amphibien und Reptilien der Neotropis. Entdeckungen deutschsprachiger Forscher in Mittel- und Südamerika. Basilisken-Presse, Rangsdorf, Germany, 398 pp.

Köhler, G., J. H. Townsend, and C. B. P. Petersen. 2016. A taxonomic revision of the Norops tropidonotus complex (Squamata, Dactyloidae), with the resurrection of N. spilorhipis (Álvarez del Toro and Smith, 1956) and the description of two new species. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3: 8–41.

Batista, A., Köhler, G., Mebert, K., Hertz, A. & Vesely, M. (2016): Delving into an underestimated frog genus: an integrative 1 approach to reveal speciation and species richness in the genus Diasporus (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) in eastern Panama. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2016, 178, 267–311.

Cacciali, P. Morando, M, Köhler, G., & Avila, L. (2016): On the distribution of the genus Teius Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae). Zootaxa 4136 (3): 491–514.


Köhler, J.J., Poe, S., Ryan, M.J. & Köhler, G. (2015): Anolis marsupialis Taylor 1956, a valid species from southern Pacific Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3915 (1): 111–122.

Köhler, G., Goméz Trejo Pérez, R., Claus Bo P. Petersen & Méndez de la Cruz, F. (2015): A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species: Addendum. Zootaxa 3914 (4): 483–489.

McCranie, J.R. & Köhler, G. (2015): The anoles of Honduras. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publications Series 1: 1–292.

Köhler, G. & Lehr, E. (2015): Two new species of lizards of the genus Stenocercus (Iguania, Tropiduridae) from central Peru. Zootaxa 3956 (3): 413–427.

Köhler, G. & Hedges, S.B. (2015): Case 3672. Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 and Anolis coelestinus Cope, 1862 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific names and designation of a neotype for A. chlorocyanus. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 72 (1): 45-49.

Batista, A., Ponce, M., Vesely, M., Mebert, K., Hertz, A., Köhler, G., Carrizo, A. & Lotzkat, S. (2015): Revision of the genus Lepidoblepharis (Reptilia: Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) in Central America, with the description of three new species. Zootaxa 3994 (2): 187–221.

Köhler, G., Goméz Trejo Pérez, R., Canseco-Márquez, L., Méndez de la Cruz, F. & Schulze, A. (2015): The tadpole of Megastomatohyla pellita (Duellman, 1968) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae). Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 146–152.

Schulze, A., Jansen, M. & Köhler, G. (2015): Tadpole diversity of Bolivia’s lowland anuran communities: molecular identification, morphological characterisation, and ecological assignment. Zootaxa 4016 (1): 001–111.

Davis, D.R., Watters, J.L., Köhler, G., Whitsett, C., Huron, N.A., Brown, R.M., Diesmos, A.C. & Siler, C.D. (2015): Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species. Zootaxa 4020 (2): 357–374.

Köhler, G. & Cedeño Vázquez, R. (2015): Triprion petasatus. Longevity. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 334–335.

Charruau, P., Cedeño Vázquez, J.R. & Köhler, G. (2015): Chapter 11. Amphibians and Reptiles. Pp. 257-293 in: G.A. Islebe, Calmé, S., León-Cortéz, J.L. & Schmook, B. (eds.): Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatán Peninsula. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, ISBN 978-3-319-06528-1. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-06529-8_11

Batista, A., Vesely, M., Mebert, K., Lotzkat, S. & Köhler, G. (2015): A new species of Dactyloa from eastern Panama, with comments on other Dactyloa species present in the region. Zootaxa 4039 (1): 57–84.

Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R., Beutelspacher-García, P. M. & Köhler, G. (2015): Thamnophis proximus. Behavior. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (4): 532-533.

Kafash, A., Kaboli, M., Köhler, G., Yousefi, M. & Asadi, A. (2015): Ensemble distribution modeling of the Mesopotamian spiny-tailed lizard, Saara loricata (Blanford, 1874), in Iran: an insight into the impact of climate change. Turkish Journal of Zoology 40: 1-10.


Köhler, G., Gómez–Trejo–Pérez, R., Petersen, C.B.P. & Mendez de la Cruz, F. R. (2014): A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis). Zootaxa 3753 (5): 453–468.

Mebs, D., Vargas Alvarez, J., Pogoda, W., Toennes, S. W. & Köhler, G. (2014): Poor alkaloid sequestration by arrow poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Costa Rica. Toxicon 80: 73–77.

Köhler, G. (2014): Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (3): 201–257.

Hertz, A., Jansen, M., Schulze, A. & Köhler, G. (2014): Amphibian taxonomy and conservation in Panama and Bolivia. FrogLog 22 (2): 60–62.

Nieto Montes de Oca, A., Köhler, G. & Feria Ortiz, M. (2014): Anolis boulengerianus Thominot, 1887, a senior synonym of Anolis isthmicus Fitch, 1978 (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3794 (1): 125–133.

Batista, A., Hertz, A., Mebert, K., Köhler, G., Lotzkat, S., Ponce, M. & Vesely, M. (2014): Two new fringe–limbed frogs of the genus Ecnomiohyla (Anura: Hylidae) from Panama. Zootaxa 3826 (3): 449–474.

Köhler, G., Goméz Trejo Pérez, R., Claus Bo P. Petersen & Méndez de la Cruz, F. (2014): A revision of the Mexican Anolis(Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species. Zootaxa 3862 (1): 1–210.

Batista, A., Köhler, G., Mebert, K. & Vesely, M. (2014): A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from eastern Panama, with comments on other species of the adspersa species group from eastern Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 97–121.

Köhler, G. & Kieckbusch, M. (2014): Two new species of Atractus from Colombia (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 3872 (3): 291–300.

Batista, A., Hertz, A., Köhler, G., Mebert, K. & Vesely, M. (2014): Morphological variation and phylogeography of frogs related to Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Anura: Terrarana: Craugastoridae) in Panama. Salamandra 50 (3): 155–171.

Mecke, S., Kieckbusch, M., Schuster, K., Ernst, R., O’Shea, M., Rödel, M.–O., Köhler, G., Grillitsch, H., Köhler, J., Haas, A., Hallermann, J. & Kaiser, H. (2014): Review risks before eradicating toads. Nature 511: 534.

Köhler, G., Vargas, J. & Lotzkat, S. (2014): Two new species of the Norops pachypus complex (Squamata, Dactyloidae) from Costa Rica. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 254–280.

Nicholson, K. & Köhler, G. (2014): A new species of the genus Norops from Darién, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope 1899) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3895 (2): 225–237.

Cacciali, P. & Köhler, G. (2014): Notes on daily activity patterns in Teius teyou (Squamata: Teiidae) in the dry Chaco. The Herpetological Bulletin 129: 24-25.


Köhler, G., Gómez Trejo Pérez, R., García Pareja, M., Petersen, C.B.P. & Méndez de la Cruz, F. R. (2013): Notes on Anolis omiltemanus Davis, 1954 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae). Herpetology Notes 6: 401–412.

Köhler, G., Gómez–Trejo–Pérez, R., Garcia–Pareja, M., Petersen, C.B.P. & Mendez de la Cruz, F. R. (2013): A contribution to the knowledge of Anolis macrinii Smith, 1968 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae). Breviora 537: 1–14

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S. & Köhler, G. (2013): New distribution records and variation of the two common lowland salamanders Bolitoglossa colonnea (Dunn, 1924) and B. lignicolor (Peters, 1873) in Panama (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae). Check List 9 (1): 83–91.

Vinke, T, Vinke, S, & Köhler, G. (2013): Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Bour, 1973), die Südliche Krötenkopfschildkröte. Schildkröten im Fokus 10 (4): 3–25.

Köhler, G., Vargas, J., Köhler, J. & Vesely, M. (2013): Noteworthy distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from Costa Rica. 44 (2): 280-283.

Bienentreu, J.-F., Hertz, A., Köhler, G. & Lotzkat, S. (2013): Distribution extension for Anolis salvini Boulenger, 1885 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae), in western Panama.  Check List 9(1): 169–174.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A., Bienentreu, J.-F. & Köhler, G. (2013): Distribution and variation of the giant alpha anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of the genus Dactyloa in the highlands of western Panama, with the description of a new species formerly referred to as D. microtus. Zootaxa 3626 (1): 1–54.

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S. & Köhler, G. (2013): A new species of Bolitoglossa (Caudata, Plethodontidae) from the continental divide of western Panama. Zootaxa 3636 (3): 463–475.

M Böhm, B Collen, JEM Baillie, J Chanson, N Cox, G Hammerson, M Hoffmann, SR Livingstone, M Ram, AGJ Rhodin, SN Stuart, PPl van Dijk, BE Young, LE Afuang, A Aghasyan, AG Aguayo, C Aguilar, R Ajtic, F Akarsu, LRV Alencar, A Allison, N Ananjeva, S Anderson, C Andrén, D Ariano-Sánchez, JC Arredondo, M Auliya, CC Austin, A Avci, PJ Baker, AF Barreto-Lima, CL Barrio-Amorós, D Basu, MF Bates, A Batistella, A Bauer, D Bennett, W Böhme, D Broadley, R Brown, J Burgess, A Captain, S Carreira, M Castaneda, F Castro, A Catenazzi, JR Cedeño-Vázquez, D Chapple, M Cheylan, DF Cisneros-Heredia, D Cogalniceanu, H Cogger, C Corti, GC Costa, PJ Couper, T Courtney, J Crnobrnja-Isailovic, P-A Crochet, B Crother, F Cruz, J Daltry, RJR Daniels, I Das, A de Silva, L Dirksen, T Doan, K Dodd, JS Doody, ME Dorcas, J Duarte de Barros Filho, VT Egan, EH El Mouden, D Embert, RE Espinoza, A Fallabrino, X Feng, Z-J Feng, L Fitzgerald, O Flores-Villela, FGR França, D Frost, H Gadsden, T Gamble, SR Ganesh, MA Garcia, JE García-Pérez, J Gatus, M Gaulke, P Geniez, A Georges, J Gerlach, S Goldberg, JCT Gonzalez, DJ Gower, T Grant, E Greenbaum, P Guo, S Haitao, AM Hamilton, K Hare, B Hedges, N Heideman, C Hilton-Taylor, R Hitchmough, B Hollingsworth, M Hutchinson, I Ineich, J Iverson, FM Jaksic, R Jenkins, U Joger, R Jose, Y Kaska, JS Keogh, G Köhler., G Kuchling, Y Kumlutaş, A Kwet, E La Marca, W Lamar, A Lane, B Lardner, C Latta, G Latta, M Lau, P Lavin, D Lawson, M LeBreton, E Lehr, D Limpus, N Lipczynski, AS Lobo, MA López-Luna, L Luiselli, V Lukoschek, M Lundberg, P Lymberakis, R Macey, WE Magnusson, L Mahler, A Malhotra, J Mariaux, B Maritz, OAV Marques, R Márquez, M Martins, G Masterson, JA Mateo, R Mathew, N Mathews, G Mayer, JR McCranie, J Measey, F Mendoza-Quijano, M Menegon, S Métrailler, DA Milton, C Montgomery, SAA Morato, T Mott, A Muñoz-Alonso, J Murphy, TQ Nguyen, G Nilson, C Nogueira, H Núñez, H Ota, J Ottenwalder, T Papenfuss, S Pasachnik, P Passos, OSG Pauwels, V Pérez Mellado, N Pérez-Buitrago, ER Pianka, J Pleguezuelos, C Pollock, P Ponce-Campos, R Powell, F Pupin, GE Quintero Díaz, R Radder, J Ramer, AR Rasmussen, C Raxworthy, R Reynolds, N Richman, EL Rico, E Riservato, G Rivas, PLB Rocha, M-O Rödel, L Rodríguez Schettino, WM Roosenburg, JP Ross, R Sadek, K Sanders, G Santos-Barrera, HH Schleich, B Schmidt, A Schmitz, M Sharifi, G Shea, R Shine, T Slimani, R Somaweera, S Spawls, P Stafford, R Stuebing, S Sweet, E Sy, H Temple, M Tognielli, K Tolley, PJ Tolson, B Tuniyev, S Tuniyev, N Üzüm, G van Buurt, M Van Sluys, A Velasco, M Vences, M Veselý, S Vinke, T Vinke, G Vogel, M Vogrin, RC Vogt, OR Wearn, YL Werner, MJ Whiting, T Wiewandt, J Wilkinson, B Wilson, S Wren, T Zamin, K Zhou & G Zug (2013): The conservation status of the world’s reptiles. – Biological Conservation 157 (2013) 372–385.


Köhler, G., Saavedra, M.S., Martinez J., Lopez, G. & Sunyer, J. (2012): First record of Aspidoscelis motaguae (Sackett, 1941) (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae) from Nicaragua. Check List 9(2):475-475.

Köhler, G. & Fried, M. (2012). Natural History Notes. Sceloporus variabilis. Prey. Herpetological Review 43 (4), 651-652.

Köhler, G., Diethert, H.-H. & Vesely, M. (2012): A Contribution to the knowledge of the lizard genus Alopoglossus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 173-188.

Lotzkat, S., Stadler, L., Batista, A., Hertz, A., Ponce, M., Hamad, N. & Köhler, G. (2012): Distribution extension for Anolis gruuo Köhler, Ponce, Sunyer and Batista, 2007 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the Comarca Ngöbe-Buglé of western Panama, and first records from Veraguas province. Check List 8(4): 620–625.

Köhler, G. (2012): Taxonomic status of two enigmatic Mexican anoles: Anolis cumingii Peters 1863 and Anolis guentherii Bocourt 1873 (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3551: 82–88.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2012): A new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubroidea: Dipsadidae) from the Cordillera Central of western Panama, with comments on other species of the genus in the area. Zootaxa 3485: 26–40.

Hertz, A., Batista, A. & Köhler, G. (2012): Description of the previously unknown advertisement call of Isthmohyla zeteki (Anura, Hylidae). Herpetology Notes, volume 5: 355-359.

Köhler, G., Batista, A., Vesely, M., Ponce, M., Carrizo, A.& Lotzkat, S. (2012): Evidence for the recognition of two species of Anolis formerly referred to as A. tropidogaster (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3348: 1–23.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A., De Leon, R., & Köhler, G. (2012): Distribution extension for Leposoma rugiceps (Cope, 1869) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) in Panama, with first record from Bocas del Toro Province. Check List 8 (3): 520-524.

Lotzkat, S., Batista, A., Vargas, J., Hertz, A., & Köhler, G. (2012): Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Potamites apodemus (Uzzell, 1966): Distribution extension and first records from Panama. Check List 8 (2): 302-306.

Köhler, G., Batista, A., Carrizo, A. & Hertz, A. (2012): Field notes on Craugastor azueroensis (Savage, 1975) (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae). Herpetology Notes 5: 157-162.

Hertz, A., Hauenschild, F., Lotzkat, S. & Köhler, G. (2012): A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae) from the Cordillera Central, western Panama. ZooKeys 196: 23–46. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.196.2774.

Köhler, J., Hahn, M. & Köhler, G. (2012): Divergent evolution of hemipenial morphology in two cryptic species of mainland anoles related to Anolis polylepis. Salamandra 48 (1): 1-11.

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S., Carrizo, A., Ponce, M., Köhler, G. & Streit, B. (2012): Field notes on findings of threatened amphibian species in the central mountain range of western Panama. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6 (2): 9-30.


Köhler, G. & Ferrari, J.A. (2011): Geographic Distribution. Sphaerodactylus dunni (NCN). – Herpetological Review 42 (1): 113.

Lotzkat, S., Bienentreu, J.-F., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2011): A new species of Anolis (Squamata: Iguania: Polychrotidae) formerly referred to as A. pachypus from the Cordillera de Talamanca of western Panama and adjacent Costa Rica. Zootaxa 3125: 1–21.

Köhler, G. (2011): A new species of anole related to Anolis altae from Volcán Tenorio, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 3120: 29–42.

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S., Stadler, L., Hamad, N., Carrizo, A., & Köhler, G. (2011): Noteworthy records of amphibians from western Panama. – Herpetological Review 42 (2): 245–250.

Köhler, G. (2011). Taxonomic status of Anolis baccatus Bocourt 1873 (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). – Zootaxa 3015: 61–65.

Köhler, G. & Vesely, M. (2011): A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae). – ZooKeys 118: 97–107.


Sunyer, J., Wake, D.B., Townsend, J.H., Travers, S.L., Rovito, S.M., Papenfuss, T.J., Obando, L.A. & Köhler, G. (2010): A new species of worm salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Oedipina) in the subgenus Oeditriton from the highlands of northern Nicaragua. – Zootaxa 2613: 29–39.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A., Stadler, L., Hamad, N., Carrizo, A., & Köhler, G. (2010). Noteworthy distributional records of reptiles from western Panamá. – Herpetological Review 41 (4): 520-523.

Köhler, G., Dehling, M. & Köhler, J. (2010). Cryptic species and hybridization in the Anolis polylepis complex, with the description of a new species from the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Zootaxa 2718: 23–38.

Jansen, M. & Köhler, G. (2010): Reptilia, Squamata, Amphisbaenidae, Amphisbaena cegei Monteiro, 1997 and Reptilia, Squamata, Teiidae, Tupinambis rufescens (Günther, 1871): Vertical range extension. – Check List 6 (4): 503-504.

Schulte, U. & Köhler, G. (2010): Microhabitat selection in the spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura bakeri on Utila Island, Honduras. – Salamandra, 46 (3): 141-146; Rheinbach.

Sunyer, J. & Köhler, G. (2010): The conservation status of the herpetofauna of Nicaragua. Pp. 489-509 – In: Wilson, L. D., Townsend, J. & Johnson, J.D. (Eds.): Conservation of Mesoamerican amphibians and reptiles. – Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah, U.S.A. Xvii + 812 pp.

Köhler, G. & Vargas, J. (2010): Anolis datzorum Köhler, Sunyer, Ponce & Batista, 2007, an addition to the known herpetofauna of Costa Rica. – Herpetozoa 23 (1/2): 95-98; Wien.

Hahn, M. & Köhler, G. (2010): Morphological variation in Anolis cristatellus. – Salamandra, 46 (2): 117-120; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & Vesely, M. (2010): A revision of the Anolis sericeus complex with the resurrection of A. wellbornae and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). –Herpetologica 66 (2): 207-228.

Köhler, G., Lotzkat, S. & Hertz, A. (2010): A new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubridae) from western Panama. – Herpetologica 66 (1): 80-85.

Lotzkat, S., Stadler, L., Carrizo, A., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2010): Notes on the easternmost population of Diploglossus bilobatus (Squamata: Anguidae) in Veraguas, Panama. – Salamandra, 46 (1): 59-62; Rheinbach.

Lotzkat, S., Köhler, J., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2010): Morphology and colouration of male Anolis datzorum (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Salamandra, 46 (1): 48-52; Rheinbach.

Mebs, D., Jansen, M., Köhler, G., Pogoda, W. & Kauert, G. (2010): Myrmecophagy and alkaloid sequestration in amphibians: a study on Ameerega picta (Dendrobatidae) and Elachistocleis sp. (Microhylidae) frogs. – Salamandra, 46 (1): 11-15; Rheinbach.


Köhler, G. (2009). A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2354: 1-18.

Köhler, G., Diethert, H.-H., Nussbaum, R. A.& Raxworthy, C. J. (2009): A revision of the Fish Scale Geckos, genus Geckolepis Grandidier (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Madagascar and the Comoros. – Herpetologica 65 (4).

Köhler, G., Ferrari, J. (2009). Geographic Distribution. Leptophis depressirostris. Herpetological Review 40 (4), 456.

Köhler, G., McCranie, J.R., Marineros, L. (2009). Geographic Distribution. Hemidactylus brookii. Herpetological Review 40 (4), 451.

Köhler, G., Sunyer, J. (2009). Geographic Distribution. Anolis insignis. Herpetological Review 40 (4), 450.

Sunyer, J., Páiz, G Dehling, D. M. & Köhler, G.  (2009): A collection of amphibians from Río San Juan, southeastern Nicaragua. – Herpetology Notes, 2: 189-202.

Jansen, M., Gonzales, L. & Köhler, G. (2009): Description of a new species of Xenopholis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Cerrado of Bolivia with comments on Xenopholis scalaris in Bolivia. – Zootaxa 2222: 31-45.

Sunyer, J., Townsend, J., Wilson, L. D., Travers, S., Obando, L., Paiz, G., Griffith, D. & Köhler, G. (2009): Three new country records of reptiles from Nicaragua. – Salamandra, 45 (3): 186-190; Rheinbach.

Hertz, A., van den Berghe, E. & Köhler, G. (2009): Atypical coloration pattern in a specimen of Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS, 1978 from western Nicaragua. – Herpetozoa 22 (1/2): 94-95.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A. & Köhler, G. (2009): Auf herpetologischer Expedition in den Bergwäldern Panamas. – Natur und Museum 139 (7/8): 228-235; Frankfurt am Main.

Schulze, A., Jansen, M. & Köhler, G. (2009): Diversity and ecology of an anuran community in San Sebastian, Bolivia. – Salamandra, 45 (2): 75-90; Rheinbach.

Hasbun, C.R. & Köhler, G. (2009): A new species of Ctenosaura (Squamata, Iguanidae) from southeastern Honduras. – Journal of Herpetology 43 (2): 192-204.

Vesely, M. & Köhler, G. (2009): Geographic Distribution. Ramphotyphlos braminus. – Herpetological Review 40 (1): 116.

Köhler, G. (2009): A new species of Anolis formerly referred to as Anolis altae from Monteverde, Costa Rica (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Journal of Herpetology 43 (1): 11-20.


Sunyer, J., Vesely, M. & Köhler, G. (2008): Morphological variation in Anolis wermuthi (Köhler & Obermeier 1998), a species endemic to the highlands of north-central Nicaragua (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 88 (2): 335-343; Frankfurt am Main.

Köhler, G., Sunyer, J., Ponce, M. & Batista, A. (2008): Noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles in Panama (Amphibia: Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Plethodontidae; Reptilia: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 88 (2): 329-333; Frankfurt am Main.

Sunyer, J., Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A., Wake, D.B., Alemán, B.M., Robleto, S.J. & Köhler, G. (2008): Two new species of salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) from southern Nicaragua (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 88 (2): 319-328; Frankfurt am Main.

Mebs, D., Pogoda, W., Batista, A., Ponce, M., Köhler, G. & Kauert, G. (2008): Variability of alkaloid profiles in Oophaga pumilio (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from western Panama and southern Nicaragua. – Salamandra, 44 (4): 241-247; Rheinbach.

Batista, A. & Köhler, G. (2008): Variation in Oophaga pumilio (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) in western Panama. – Salamandra, 44 (4): 225-234; Rheinbach.

Jansen, M. & Köhler, G. (2008): A new species of Phalotris (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 88 (1): 103-110; Frankfurt am Main.

Köhler, G. & Smith, E.N. (2008): A new species of anole of the Norops schiedei group from western Guatemala (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Herpetologica 64 (2): 207-214; Emporia.

Ponce, M. & Köhler, G. (2008): Morphological variation in anoles related to A. kemptoni in Panama. – Salamandra, 44 (2): 65-83; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & Sunyer, J. (2008): Two new species of anoles formerly referred to as Anolis limifrons (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Herpetologica 64 (1): 92-108; Emporia.


Köhler, G. Ponce, M., Sunyer, J. & Batista, A. (2007): Four new species of anoles (genus Anolis) from the Serranía de Tabasará, west-central Panama (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Herpetologica 63 (3): 375-391; Emporia.

Köhler, G. (2007): Assessing the status of Anolis salvini Boulenger 1885 and A. bouvierii Bocourt 1873 based on the primary types (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 87 (1): 125-130; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G. & Hantke, G. (2007): First record of Malpolon monspessulanus (HERMANN, 1804) from the island of Corsica (France). – Herpetozoa, 20 (1/2): 81-82.

Sunyer, J & Köhler, G. (2007): New Country and departmental records of Herpetofauna in Nicaragua. – Salamandra, 43 (1): 57-62; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & Vesely, M. (2007): The hemipenis of Opipeuter xestus Uzzell (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). – Salamandra, 43 (1): 49-51; Rheinbach.


Köhler, G. & Sunyer, J. (2006): A new species of rain frog (genus Craugastor) of the fitzingeri group from Río San Juan, southeastern Nicaragua. – Senckenbergiana biologica 86 (2): 261-266; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G. & Alt, S., Grünfelder, C., Dehling, M. & Sunyer, J. (2006): Morphological variation in Central American leaf-litter anoles: Norops humilis, N. quaggulus and N. uniformis. – Salamandra, 42 (4): 239-254; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & Steinfartz, S. (2006): A new subspecies of the Fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Tendi and Marea valleys, Asturias, Spain. – Salamandra, 42 (1): 13-20; Rheinbach.


Köhler, G., Schulze, A. & Vesely, M. (2005): Morphological variation in Norops capito (Peters, 1863), a wide-spread species in southeastern Mexico and Central America. – Salamandra, 41 (3): 129-136; Rheinbach.

Hasbún, C.R., Gómez, A, Köhler, G. & Lunt, D.H. (2005): Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Mesoamerican spiny-tailed lizards (Ctenosaura quinquecarinata complex): historical biogeography, species status and conservation. – Molecular Ecology 14: 3095-3107.

Gutsche, A. & Köhler, G. (2005 [„2004“]): A fertile hybrid between Ctenosaura similis (Gray, 1831) and C. bakeri Stejneger, 1901 (Squamata: Iguanidae) on Isla de Utila, Honduras. – Salamandra, 40 (3/4): 201-206; Rheinbach.


McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (2004): Laemanctus serratus Cope. – Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 796: 1-5.

McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (2004): Laemanctus longipes Wiegmann. – Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 795: 1-4.

McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (2004): Laemanctus Wiegmann. – Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 794: 1-2.

Köhler, G. & E. Lehr (2004): Comments on Euspondylus and Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru, with the description of three new species and a key to the Peruvian species. – Herpetologica 60 (4): 501-518; Emporia.

Köhler, G. & M. Acevedo (2004): The anoles (genus Norops) of Guatemala. I. The species of the Pacific versant below 1500 m elevation. – Salamandra, 40 (2): 113-140; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G., W. Böhme & A. Schmitz (2004): A new species of Echinosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Ecuador. – Journal of Herpetology 38 (1): 52-60; New Haven.

Köhler, G., A.Z. Quintana, F. Buitrago & H. Diethert (2004): New and noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles from Nicaragua. – Salamandra, 40 (1): 15-24; Rheinbach.

Radachowsky, J., R. García Anleu & G. Köhler (2004): First record of Ctenosaura alfredschmidti Köhler, 1995 in Guatemala. – Salamandra, 40 (1): 11-13; Rheinbach.


Köhler, G. (2003): A new species of Morunasaurus from Peru (Reptilia, Squamata: Hoplocercidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 82 (1/2): 235-241; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G. & Vesely, M. (2003): A comparison of Norops petersii (Bocourt) and Central American N. biporcatus (Wiegmann), with notes on the holotype of D.[actyloa] biporcata Wiegmann (Reptilia, Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 82 (1/2): 223-233; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G., McCranie, J.R., Nicholson, K.E. & Kreutz, J. (2003): Geographic variation in hemipenial morpholgy in Norops humilis (Peters 1863), and the systematic status of Norops quaggulus (Cope 1885) (Reptilia, Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 82 (1/2): 213-222; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G. (2003): Geographic distribution: Bufo valliceps. – Herp. Review 34 (2): 161. Athens.

Köhler, G. (2003): Green iguana communication. – Journ. Int. Iguana Soc. 10 (2): 50-52; West Hartford.

Köhler, G. (2003): Two new species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru. – Salamandra, 39 (1): 5-20; Rheinbach.

Jansen, M. & G. Köhler (2003 [„2002“]): Biogeographische Analyse der Herpetofauna von ausgewählten Hochlandgebieten Nicaraguas. – Salamandra, 38 (4): 269-286; Rheinbach.

Honda, M., Ota, H., Köhler, G., Ineich, I., Chirio, L., Chen, S.-L. & Hikida, T. (2003): Phylogeny of the lizard subfamily Lygosominae (Reptilia: Scincidae), with special reference to the origin of the New World taxa. – Genes Genet. Syst. 78: 71-80.


Mendoza-Quijano, F., Köhler, G. & Smith H.M. (2002): Extraordinary sexual dichromatism in Sceloporus macdougalli (Reptilia: Phrynosomatidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico. – Salamandra, 38 (3): 185-190; Rheinbach.

Lehr, E., Aguilar, C. & Köhler, G. (2002): Two sympatric new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from a cloud forest in the Peruvian Andes. – Journal of Herpetology 36 (2): 208-216.

Mendoza Quijano, F., Mejenes López, S.d.M.A., Hernández Aquino, M. & Köhler, G. (2002): Ctenosaura acanthura (Shaw, 1802). An addition to the known herpetofauna of the Mexican State of Hidalgo. – Herpetozoa 15 (1/2): 91-92.

Lehr, E., Wallach, V., Köhler, G. & Aguilar, C. (2002): New species of tricolor Leptotyphlops (Reptilia: Squamata: Leptotyphlopidae) from Peru. – Copeia 2002 (1): 131-136.

Lehr, E., Köhler, G. & Streit, B. (2002): Die Herpetofauna von Mittelperu entlang eines Transektes von der pazifischen Küste bis in die Hochanden (Amphibia et Reptilia). – Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 22 (24): 361-392.

Köhler, G. (2002): A new species of Salamander of the genus Nototriton from Nicaragua (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae). – Herpetologica 58 (2): 205-210.

Cody, M.L. & Köhler, G. (2002): Notes on Phyllobates lugubris O. Schmidt, 1857 in Nicaragua. – Herpetozoa 14 (3/4): 170-171; Wien.

Köhler, G. & Vielmetter, E. (2002): Dipsas articulata (Cope, 1868) in Nicaragua. – Herpetozoa 14 (3/4): 169-170; Wien.

McCranie, J.R., Nicholson, K.E. & Köhler, G. (2002 [“2001”]): A new species of Norops (Squamata: Polychrotidae) from northwestern Honduras. – Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (4): 465-473; Leiden.


Köhler, G. (2001): Geographic distribution: Hemidactylus frenatus. – Herp. Review 32 (1): 57. Athens.

Köhler, G. (2001): Sphaerodactylus millepunctatus Hallowell. – Sauria, Berlin, 23 (4): 1-2.

Köhler, G. & J.R. McCranie (2001): Two new species of anoles from northern Honduras (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 235-245; Frankfurt a. M.

McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (2001): A new species of anole from eastern Honduras related to Norops tropidonotus (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 227-233; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G., L.D. Wilson & J.R. McCranie (2001): A new genus and species of colubrid snake from the Sierra de Omoa of northwestern Honduras (Reptilia, Squamata). – Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 269-276; Frankfurt a. M.

Hasbun, C.R. & G. Köhler (2001): On the identity of the holotype of Ctenosaura quinquecarinata (Gray 1842). – Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 247-255; Frankfurt a. M.

Köhler, G. & C.R. Hasbun (2001): A new species of spiny-tailed iguana from Mexico formerly referred to Ctenosaura quinquecarinata (Gray 1842) (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae). – Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 257-267; Frankfurt a. M.

Veselý, M. & Köhler, G. (2001): Zur Kenntnis von Mesaspis moreletii (Bocourt, 1871) in El Salvador. – Salamandra, 37 (3): 185-192; Rheinbach.

Hasbun, C.R., Köhler, G., McCranie, J.R. & Lawrence, A. (2001): Additions to the description of Ctenosaura flavidorsalis Köhler & Klemmer, 1994 and its occurrence in south-western Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala (Squamata: Sauria: Iguanidae). – Herpetozoa 14 (1/2): 55-63.

Köhler, G., McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. (2001): A new species of anole from western Honduras (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Herpetologica 57 (3): 247-255.

Jansen, M. & G. Köhler (2001): Ökologie des Mombacho-Salamanders, Bolitoglossa mombachoensis Köhler & McCranie, 1999, am Volcán Mombacho, Nicaragua (Caudata: Plethodontidae). – Salamandra, 37 (2): 83-98; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & A.M. Bauer (2001): Case 3145: D.[actyloa] biporcata Wiegmann, 1834 (curently Anolis biporcatus) and Anolis Petersii Bocourt, 1873 (Reptilia, Sauria): proposed conservation of the specific names and designation of a neotype for A. biporcatus. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 58 (2): 122-125.

Köhler, G. & F. Schmidt (2001): Zweiter Nachweis von Nothopsis rugosus Cope, 1871 aus Nicaragua. – Salamandra, 37 (1): 61-64; Rheinbach.

Lehr, E., Köhler, G., C. Aguilar & Ponce, E. (2001): New species of Bufo from central Peru. – Copeia 2001 (1): 216-223.

Köhler, G. (2001): The type material and use of the name Anolis bourgeaei Bocourt (Sauria: Polychrotidae). – Copeia 2001 (1): 274-275.


McCranie, J.R., Köhler, G. & Wilson, L.D. (2000): Two new species of anoles from northwestern Honduras related to Norops laeviventris (Squamata: Polychrotidae). – Senckenbergiana biol. 80 (1/2): 213-223; Frankfurt a. M.

Lehr, E., Köhler, G. & Ponce, E. (2000): A new species of Phrynopus from Peru (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae). – Senckenbergiana biol. 80 (1/2): 205-212; Frankfurt a. M.

Nicholson, K.E., McCranie, J.R. & Köhler, G. (2000): Herpetological expedition to Parque Nacional Patuca: A newly establishes park in Honduras. – Bull. Brit. Herp. Soc. 72: 26-31. London

Lehr, E. & Köhler, G. (2000): Geographic distribution: Bufo glaberrimus. – Herp. Review 31 (1): 49. Athens.

Lehr, E. & Köhler, G. (2000): Geographic distribution: Tachymenis peruviana. – Herp. Review 31 (3): 187. Athens.

Lehr, E., Fuentes, E. & Köhler, G. (2000): Zur Nutzung thermaler Gewässer durch die Andenkröte Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann, 1835. – Salamandra, 36 (3): 199-202; Rheinbach.

Köhler, G. & E. Lehr (2000): Geographic Distribution. Bufo glaberrimus. – Herp. Review 31 (1): 49.

Köhler, G., E. Lehr & J.R. McCranie (2000): The tadpole of the Central American toad Bufo luetkenii Boulenger. – Journal of Herpetology 34 (2): 303-306.

McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (2000): Notes on the type series of Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, with the designation of a lectotype. – The Southwestern Naturalist 45 (1): 71-74.

Köhler, G. & E. Blinn (2000): Natürliche Bastardierung zwischen Ctenosaura bakeri und Ctenosaura similis auf Utila, Honduras. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 36 (1): 77-79.

Köhler, G., W. Schroth & B. Streit (2000): Systematics of the Ctenosaura group of lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae). – Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (2): 177-191.

Köhler, G. & Gutsche, A. (2000): Geographic Distribution. Drymarchon corais (Western Indigo Snake). – Herpetological Review 31 (4): 255.


Schmidt, F., Köhler, G. & Kreutz, J. (1999): Morphologie, Verbreitung und Fortpflanzung der Stachelschuppenleguane in El Salvador: 2. Sceloporus malachiticus Cope, 1864. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 35 (4): 279-288.

Köhler, G., F. Schmidt, R. Schröter & R. Siemer (1999): Untersuchungen zur Variation mehrerer Reptilienarten aus El Salvador unter Berücksichtigung der Verwendbarkeit von Pholidosemerkmalen zur individuellen Wiedererkennung. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 35 (4): 227-242.

Köhler, G. & J.R. McCranie (1999): A new species of colubrid snake of the Rhadinaea godmani group from Cerro Saslaya, Nicaragua (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). – Senckenbergiana biol., 79 (2): 243-249.

Köhler, G. (1999): Zur Kenntnis von Morunasaurus annularis (O´Shaughnessy, 1881) – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 35 (3): 181-190.

Köhler, G., J.R. McCranie & L.D. Wilson (1999): Two new species of anoles of the Norops crassulus group from Honduras (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae. – Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (3): 279-298. .

Köhler, G. & J. Kreutz (1999): Norops macrophallus (Werner, 1917), a valid species of anole from Guatemala and El Salvador (Squamata: Sauria: Iguanidae). – Herpetozoa 12 (1/2): 57-65. .

McCranie, J.R. & G. Köhler (1999): Geographic Distribution. Sphenomorphus assatus. – Herp. Review 30 (2): 111. .

Köhler, G. & R. Seipp (1999): Natural History Notes. Spilotes pullatus. Prey. – Herp. Review 30 (2): 104.

Köhler, G. (1999): The Amphibians and Reptiles of Nicaragua: A Distributional Checklist with Keys. – Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt a. M., 213: 1-121.

McCranie, J.R. & Köhler, G. (1999): Two new species of colubrid snakes of the genus Enulius from Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. – Caribbean J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 14-22.

Köhler, G. (1999): Geographic Distribution. Tantillita lintoni. – Herp. Review 30 (1): 55.

Köhler, G. & J.R. McCranie (1999): A new species of salamander from Volcán Mombacho, Nicaragua, formerly referred to Bolitoglossa striatula (Amphibia, Caudata: Plethodontidae). – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt a. M., 79 (1): 89-93. .

McCranie, J.R. & Köhler, G. (1999): A new species of rainfrog of the Eleutherodactylus gollmeri group from western Honduras (Amphibia, Anura: Leptodactylidae). – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt a. M., 79 (1): 83-87.

Köhler, G. (1999): Eine neue Saumfingerart der Gattung Norops von der Pazifikseite des nördlichen Mittelamerika. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 35 (1): 37-52.

Köhler, G. & J.R. McCranie (1999): Taxonomic status of Rhadinaea pinicola Mertens (Serpentes: Colubridae). – Copeia 1999 (2): 529-530.

McCranie, J.R. & Köhler, G. (1999): A new species of salamander of the Bolitoglossa dunni group from Cerro El Pital, Honduras and El Salvador (Amphibia, Caudata: Plethodontidae). – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt a. M., 78 (1/2): 225-229.


Köhler, G. (1998): Geographic Distribution. Sibon annulatus. – Herp. Review 29 (4): 249.

Köhler, G. (1998): Geographic Distribution. Eleutherodactylus lauraster. – Herp. Review 29 (4): 246.

Köhler, G., F. Schmidt & P. Eusemann (1998): Morphologie, Verbreitung und Fortpflanzung der Stachelschuppenleguane in El Salvador: 1. Sceloporus squamosus Bocourt, 1874. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 34 (4): 301-308.

Köhler, G. (1998): Further additions to the known herpetofauna of Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with notes on other species, and a key to the amphibians and reptiles of the island. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt a. M., 77 (2): 139-145.

Köhler, G. & M. Obermeier (1998): A new species of anole of the Norops crassulus group from central Nicaragua. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt a. M., 77 (2): 127-137.

Köhler, G. (1998): Schutz- und Forschungsprojekt Utila-Schwarzleguan: Die Nachzucht von Ctenosaura bakeri Stejneger, 1901 im ex-situ-Zuchtprogramm. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 34 (3): 227-238.


Haas, W., E. Lehr & Köhler, G. (1997): The tadpole of Bufo kelaarti, Günther, 1859 from Sri Lanka. – Lyriocephalus 3 (2): 2-6

Köhler, G. (1997) Geographic Distribution. Ungaliophis continentalis. – Herp. Review 28 (4): 211.

Köhler, G. (1997) Eine neue Unterart des Wickelschwanzskinkes Corucia zebrata von Bougainville, Papua-Neuguinea. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 33 (1): 61-68.

Köhler, G. & A.A. Schmidt (1997) Zur Biologie von Bolitoglossa mexicana: Freilandbeobachtungen, Pflege und Nachzucht. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 32 (4): 275-284.


Köhler, G. & G. Vogel (1996) Notes on the occurence of Elapoidis fusca Boie 1827 on Borneo. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt, 76 (1/2): 61-63.

Köhler, G. (1996) Notes on a collection of reptiles from El Salvador collected between 1951 and 1956. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt, 76 (1/2): 29-38.

Köhler, G. (1996) Additions to the known herpetofauna of Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with a description of a new species of the genus Norops. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt, 76 (1/2): 19-28.

Köhler, G. (1996) A new species of anole of the Norops pentaprion group from Isla de Utila, Honduras. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt, 75 (1/2): 23-31.

Köhler, G. (1996): Freilanduntersuchungen zur Morphologie, Verbreitung und Lebensweise des Yucatán-Schwarzleguans (Ctenosaura defensor). – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 32 (3): 153-162.

Köhler, G. & B. Streit (1996) Notes on the systematic status of the taxa acanthura, pectinata, and similis of the genus Ctenosaura. – Senckenbergiana biol., Frankfurt, 75 (1/2): 33-43.


Köhler, G. (1995) Freilanduntersuchungen zur Morphologie und Ökologie von Ctenosaura bakeri und C. oedirhina auf den Islas de la Bahia, Honduras, mit Bemerkungen zur Schutzproblematik. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 31 (2): 93-106.

Köhler, G. (1995) Eine neue Art der Gattung Ctenosaura (Sauria: Iguanidae) aus dem südlichen Campeche, Mexiko. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 31 (1): 1-14.


Vieler, E., Baumgärtner, W., Herbst, W. & Köhler, G. (1994): Characterization of a reovirus isolate from a rattle snake, Crotalus viridis, with neurological dysfunction. – Archives of Virology 138: 341-344.

Köhler, G. & Klemmer, K. (1994) Eine neue Schwarzleguanart der Gattung Ctenosaura aus La Paz, Honduras. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 30 (3): 197-208.


Köhler, G. (1992) Growth of the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) in the first 18 month of life in captivity. – Iguana Times, Big Pine Key, FL, 1 (4): 6-7.


Köhler, G. (1989) Lebensweise, Haltung und Nachzucht von Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). – Salamandra 25 (1): 25-38.


Köhler, G. & Zorn, H. (2014): Chuckwallas: Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 142 S.

Köhler, G. (2011): Amphibians of Central America. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 379 S.

Köhler, G. (2008): Reptiles of Central America. 2. Auflage – Offenbach (Herpeton): 400 S.

Köhler, G. (2006): Diseases of amphibians and reptiles. – Krieger Publishing Company, 184 S.; Malabar, Florida.

Grießhammer, K. & Köhler, G. (2006) Leopardgeckos. – Offenbach (Herpeton), 142 S.

Köhler, G. & Berg, P. (2005) Kornnattern. – Offenbach (Herpeton), 142 S.

McCranie, J.R., Köhler, G. & Wilson, L.D. (2005): Amphibians and reptiles of the Bay Islands and Cayos Cochinos, Honduras. – Salt Lake City (Bibliomania), 210 S.

Köhler, G., Veselý, M. & Greenbaum, E. (2006): The amphibians and reptiles of El Salvador. – Krieger Publishing Company, 238 S.; Malabar, Florida.

Köhler, G. (2005): Incubation of reptile eggs. – Malabar (Krieger Publ. Comp.), 214 S.

Köhler, G. (2004) Inkubation von Reptilieneiern. 2. Aufl. – Offenbach (Herpeton), 254 S.

Köhler, G. (2004): Reptiles de Centroamérica. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 367 S. “2003”

Köhler, G., Grießhammer, K. & Schuster, N. (2003): Bartagamen – Biologie, Pflege, Zucht, Erkrankungen. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 190 S.

Köhler, G. (2003): Reptiles of Central America. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 367 S.

Köhler, G. (2002): Schwarzleguane – Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. – Herpeton: 142 S.; Offenbach.

Köhler, G. & Heimes, P. (2002): Stachelleguane – Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. – Herpeton: 174 S.; Offenbach.

Köhler, G. (2001): Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 208 S.

Köhler, G. (2001): Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas. Band 2: Schlangen. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 174 S.

Köhler, G. (2001): Der Grüne Leguan im Terrarium. – Herpeton: 78 S.; Offenbach.

Köhler, G. & Langerwerf, B. (2000): Tejus – Lebensweise, Pflege und Zucht. – Herpeton: 78 S.; Offenbach.

Köhler, G. (2000): Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas. Band 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 158 S.

Köhler, G. (1999): Basilisken, Helmleguane, Kronenbasilisken. 2. Aufl. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 94 S.

Köhler, G. (1998) Der Grüne Leguan. 3. Aufl. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 160 S.

Köhler, G. (1997) Inkubation von Reptilieneiern. – Offenbach (Herpeton): 205 S.

Köhler, G. (1996) Krankheiten der Amphibien und Reptilien. – Stuttgart (Verlag Eugen Ulmer): 168 S.

Köhler, G. (1993) Schwarze Leguane – Freilandbeobachtungen, Pflege und Zucht. 126 S.

Köhler, G. (1993) Basilisken – Freilandbeobachtungen, Pflege und Zucht. 107 S.

Köhler, G. (1993) Der Grüne Leguan – Freilandbeobachtungen, Pflege, Zucht und Erkrankungen. 115 S.

Linda Mogk
Technische Assistentin Herpetologie
Arcadio Herpetologie
Arcadio Carrizo
PhD candidate
mitarbeiter vargas
Joseph Vargas
PhD candidate

Joseph Vargas is a Costa Rican herpetologist who obtained a Master‘s Degree in Biodiversity and Collection Management at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Currently is a PhD candidate at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt in collaboration with the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Joseph is specializing in the study of Neotropical herpetofauna, mainly of Costa Rica. His research focuses on alkaloids, barcoding, bioacoustics, biogeography, bioinformatics, taxonomy and systematics, herpetofauna conservation and reproduction in captivity.