Steppes are known for their characteristic birds and especially mammals. While many of the larger species are now extinct or rare in many parts of China, small mammals remain a common sight. Here we list some of the charismatic species (Fig. 1). The true diversity of course lies in invertebrates such as insects or soil organisms. These are, however, still poorly studied.

Larger mammals of temperate steppes in Inner Mongolia

a. Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa)
b. Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa)
c. Mongolian argali (Ovis ammon)
d. Asian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus)
e. Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica)
f. Wild Camel (Camelus ferus)
g. Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii)

Typical wild mammals and birds on Tibetan grasslands

a. Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang)
b. Tibetan steppe fox (Vulpes ferrilata)
c. Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata)
d. Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)
e. Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis)
f.  Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

Fig. 1 Typical wild animals on Tibetan grasslands (Li et al.2019). a) Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang); b) Tibetan steppe fox (Vulpes ferrilata); c) Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata); d) Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii); e) black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) and f) plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).
a) Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang)
b) Tibetan steppe fox (Vulpes ferrilata)
c) Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata)
d) Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)
e) black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis)
f) plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)


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